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By Piispanen P.S.

The thesis bargains with the synthesis and characterization of surfactants derivedfrom common items. Physico-chemical homes, similar to solubility andmelting issues, and surfactant houses, reminiscent of dispersion, emulsification,wetting and foaming have been investigated.A variety of surfactants used to be synthesized from sugars and common hydrophobiccompounds. Monosaccharides, incl. D-glucose, 2-deoxy -2-amino-D-glucose, Dfructoseand D-(+)-glucono-1,5-lactone, have been used for the hydrophilic moiety ofthe surfactants. The hydrophobic moiety consisted of steroids, monoterpenes,rosin acids, fatty acids and lengthy chain alkyl teams, in addition to aromaticcompounds. as a rule, the factitious strategies gave really excessive yields infew steps. a few novel surfactants have been ready in excessive yields in a single simple,synthetic step.A uncomplicated version couldn't rationalize the overall structure-propertyrelationship of the surfactants in view that no transparent developments can be saw. Allsurfactant homes have been in comparison to these of universal advertisement surfactants.The aqueous solubility follows the overall pattern anticipated from the HLB of thesurfactant whilst issues concerning the personality of the top crew and theconnecting unit are additional. a few surfactants have been in a position to shape macroemulsionsbetween water and diversified oils. The emulsions have been strong for a number of months.Surfactants with open sugar head teams, unlike closed sugar head groups,were came across to be larger dispersion brokers. expanding the scale of the tail staff, byusing dual chain tail teams, elevated the dispersion homes extra. Thewetting houses of the sugar-based surfactants have been typically stumbled on to bepoor. Foaming homes have been low for surfactants with low aqueous solubility.Some surfactants have been chanced on to be really fascinating: 1-deoxy -1-octylamino-D-glucitol is an exceptional foaming and wetting agent, in addition to agood dispersion and emulsification agent. PEG- and sugar-based surfactants ofdehydroabietic acid are reliable foaming brokers with reasonable wetting homes. Thesugar-based one is usually a very sturdy dispersion agent.

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The thesis bargains with the synthesis and characterization of surfactants derivedfrom traditional items. Physico-chemical homes, resembling solubility andmelting issues, and surfactant homes, akin to dispersion, emulsification,wetting and foaming have been investigated. a few surfactants used to be synthesized from sugars and ordinary hydrophobiccompounds.

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Surfactant 50, on the other hand, becomes charged in water solution, and, therefore, the electrostatic double-layer repulsion contributes to the stability in this case. Interestingly, two less water-soluble surfactants, 11 and 28, both having large hydrophobic groups, show good dispersion properties. This might be interpreted in two ways: a liquid crystalline phase may deposit on the particle surfaces and provide a stabilizing coating in the excess of that obtained for monolayer adsorption or the large hydrophobic group may give rise to high cohesive monolayer energy.

Descriptions of the synthesis and preparation of these surfactants can be found in Paper VIII. Table 5 below summarizes the results of this simple, unpublished test. 41 Table 5. 0 mL) in a small tube. The samples were slowly heated (~1 °C/minute), with shaking, from room temperature up to the boiling point of water. The temperature at which all surfactant was clearly dissolved was noted as the solubility temperature. A measure of the aqueous solubility of the surfactants can be gained from their respective solubility temperatures.

The foamability of the surfactants with a high solubility (> 1 w/v%) varies considerably. If the adsorption rate was the limiting factor for these surfactants one would expect to see an inverse relation between molecular weight and foamability. This is, however, not observed, but rather surfactants 24 and 25, having high molecular weights, show good foaming properties. Large differences in long-range forces due to charging of the interfaces are not to be expected since the surfactants are non-ionic (with the exception of surfactants 27 and, in practice, 50).

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