By Catherine Garel MD (auth.)
Fetal MR has grown regularly in value in recent times, and the mind has turn into the main target of research. notwithstanding, we lack demonstrated criteria and an exceptional wisdom of the conventional MR visual appeal. To fill this hole is the aim of the 1st a part of this e-book, that is an MR atlas of the cerebral improvement of the fetus.
The moment half is devoted to cerebral pathologies. It comprises, for every situation, a precis of the basic facts, the imaging findings (US and MR) in correlation with neurofetopathology and/or postnatal imaging, and a quick standpoint of the prognosis.
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Additional resources for MRI of the Fetal Brain: Normal Development and Cerebral Pathologies
The main events that can be observed on slices nos. 8 and 9 are brieﬂy overviewed. 35 36 Chapter 4 Results 22–23 Weeks of Gestation Biometrics (in mm) Min–max FOD 60–73 Cerebral BPD Bone BPD 45–55 50–63 LCC 28–34 HV 10–12 APDV 8–9 TCD 22–34 Morphology At this stage of fetal development, the vermis has ﬁnished its rotation and the posterior fossa takes its deﬁnitive morphological aspect. The pericerebral space shows a physiological broadening. Gyration Sulci present (≥ 75 %) Interhemispheric ﬁssure Lateral sulcusa Internal parieto-occipital ﬁssure Hippocampal ﬁssure Callosal sulcusb Sulci detectable (25 %–75 %) Calcarine ﬁssure Cingular sulcus Marginal sulcus Sulci absent (< 25 %) Collateral sulcus Central sulcus Precentral sulcus Postcentral sulcus Intraparietal sulcus Superior temporal sulcus Inferior temporal sulcus External occipitotemporal sulcus Superior frontal sulcus Inferior frontal sulcus Secondary cingular sulci Secondary occipital sulci Insular sulci a The sylvian ﬁssure is widely open at this stage.
The surface of the vermis was not measured on every fetus, and the results are only given for cases after 28 weeks of gestation. Gyration For each week, a table gives the list of the absent, detectable and present sulci. The detectable sulci are presented in an order corresponding to their presence gradient, i. e. the percentage of visualization of these sulci, the most frequently visible sulcus appearing on top. Furthermore, we voluntarily show in bold characters the name of the sulci appearing for the ﬁrst time in the “Present” column.
Laurent Guibaud (Hôpital Debrousse, Lyons) kindly provided us with slices nos. 4–7 at 27 weeks of gestation. On the facing page of these ten slices, the results for each week are presented in a synthetic manner, as follows. Biometrics Only the measurements of the fronto-occipital diameter, bone and cerebral biparietal diameters, length of the corpus callosum, height of the vermis, anteroposterior diameter of the vermis, transverse cerebellar diameter and surface of the vermis are shown. Biometric data for 35 and 36 weeks of gestation were grouped due to the small number of cases in the 36th-gestational-week cohort.