By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
Half I. creation: 1. advent F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. innovations and techniques: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. strong isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic classes: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, ok. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. condo and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. building and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; common index
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Extra info for A geologic time scale 2004
The chron concept in GTS89 implied equal duration of zones in prominent biozonal schemes, such as a conodont scheme for the Devonian, etc. The two-way graphs for each period in the Paleozoic were interpolated by hand, weighting tie points subjectively. Error bars on stage boundaries calculated with the chronogram method were lost in the process of drawing the best-ﬁt line. The fact that the Paleozoic suffered both from a lack of data points and relatively large uncertainties led to poorly constrained age estimates for stages; this uncertainty is readily noticeable in the chronogram/chron ﬁgures of GTS89.
3 Paleozoic scales The Paleozoic spans 291 myr between 542 and 251 Ma. Its estimated duration has decreased about 60 myr since the scales of Holmes (1960) and Kulp (1961). Selected key Paleozoic time scales are compared to GTS2004 in Fig. 5a,b; historic changes stand out best when comparing the time scale at the period level in Fig. 5a. g. the Ludlow Stage in the Silurian, or the Emsian Stage in the Devonian). Whereas most of the Cenozoic and Mesozoic have had relatively stable stage nomenclature for some decades (Figs.
Francis as part of a Phanerozoic time scale symposium coordinated a systematic, numbered radiometric database with critical evaluations. , 1964) were listed in the order as received by the editors. Supplements of items 338–366 were assembled by the Geological Society’s Phanerozoic Time-scale Sub-Committee from publications omitted from the previous volume or published between 1964 and 1968, and of items 367–404 relating speciﬁcally to the Pleistocene most were provided by N. J. Shackleton. The compilation of these additional items with critical evaluations was included in The Phanerozoic Time-Scale: A Supplement (Harland and Francis, 1971).