By Clayton R. Paul
This is a short yet accomplished booklet protecting the set of EMC talents that EMC practitioners at the present time require in an effort to be triumphant in high-speed, electronic electronics. the fundamental abilities within the booklet are new and weren’t studied in such a lot curricula a few ten years ago. The quickly altering electronic expertise has created this call for for a dialogue of latest research abilities really for the research of transmission lines the place the conductors that interconnect the digital modules became “electrically large,” longer than a 10th of a wavelength, that are more and more turning into important. Crosstalk among the strains can also be swiftly turning into an important challenge in getting sleek digital platforms to paintings satisfactorily. for that reason this article concentrates at the modeling of “electrically huge” connection conductors the place previously-used Kirchhoff’s voltage and present legislation and lumped-circuit modeling became out of date a result of expanding speeds of contemporary electronic systems. This has brought on an elevated emphasis on Signal Integrity.
until eventually as lately as a few ten years in the past, electronic process clock speeds and information charges have been within the 1000s of megahertz (MHz) range. sooner than that point, the “lands” on revealed circuit forums (PCBs) that interconnect the digital modules had very little influence at the right functioning of these digital circuits. at the present time, the clock and knowledge speeds have moved into the low gigahertz (GHz) range.
Chapter 1 Transmission strains: actual Dimensions vs. electrical Dimensions (pages 1–29):
Chapter 2 Time?Domain research of Two?Conductor traces (pages 31–101):
Chapter three Frequency?Domain research of Two?Conductor traces (pages 103–123):
Chapter four Crosstalk in Three?Conductor traces (pages 125–154):
Chapter five The Approximate Inductive–Capacitive Crosstalk version (pages 155–209):
Chapter 6 the precise Crosstalk Prediction version (pages 211–244):
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Extra info for Transmission Lines in Digital Systems for EMC Practitioners
Above 1 GHz (the last frequency plotted) the pattern replicates, which is a general property of transmission lines. Finally, we investigate the time-domain response of the line where we drive the line with a clock signal of 10 MHz fundamental frequency (a period of 100 ns), an amplitude of 1 V, rise and fall times of 10 ns, and a 50% duty cycle as shown in Fig. 19. It is typical for the rise and fall times of digital waveforms to be chosen to be around 10% of the period T in order to give adequate “setup” and “hold” times.
Consider two wires of radii rw1 and rw2 separated by a distance s as shown in Fig. 10. Using superposition, we obtain the total magnetic flux penetrating the flat surface between the two wires using the subproblem as shown in Fig. 10. Two-wire line. We assume that the wires are of equal radii (as is the practical case) and are “widely separated” sufficiently so that the current and charge are distributed uniformly around the wire peripheries so that the subproblems noted above are satisfied. Since the wires are assumed to be widely separated so that the subproblems are satisfied, this reduces to mI s s >> rw1 ¼ rw2 ð2:25Þ c ¼ 0 ln p rw Hence the per-unit-length inductance of the line is c I m0 s ¼ ln p rw l ¼ H m s >> rw ð2:26Þ The per-unit-length capacitance of the line can be obtained from q 2V 1 ¼ 2 v0 l m «0 ¼ 0 l p«0 ¼ lnðs=rw Þ c ¼ ð2:27Þ F m s >> rw 44 TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF TWO-CONDUCTOR LINES If the two wires are “closely spaced,” the charges and currents will not be distributed uniformly around the wire peripheries but will concentrate on the facing sides.
Input impedance to the line for 0 t < 2TD. So the input impedance to the line appears to be ZC but only for t 2TD . Hence from Fig. 18(b) we can calculate the voltage and current waves sent out initially Vinit ¼ ZC VS ðtÞ RS þ ZC ð2:55Þ VS ðtÞ RS þ ZC ð2:56Þ Iinit ¼ as illustrated in Fig. 18. 4 WAVE TRACING AND REFLECTION COEFFICIENTS We trace the waves noting that the total voltage or current at any point on the line and at any time is the sum of the forward- and backward-traveling waves at that point and at that time on the line.