By Professor Ayman Shihadeh
Utilizing the main large assortment hitherto of his released and unpublished writings, this quantity offers a entire, in-depth and interdisciplinary research of the moral philosophy of al-R'z' (1149-1210), a most eminent and influential medieval philosopher-theologian. a fancy photo emerges, throughout his philosophical, theological, moral and juristic works, of a constant and multi-layered moral concept. Al-R'z' departs from classical Ash'ar' divine command ethics to improve either a consequentialist ethics of motion, which heavily competitors Mu'tazili deontological ethics, and a perfectionist ethics of personality. in the latter framework, he units out his later, teleological idea of prophecy. the amount contains the textual content, released for the 1st time, of 1 of al-R'z's most recent and so much attention-grabbing works, "Censure of the Pleasures of This World", which expresses reported ethical and epistemological pessimism.
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Additional info for The Teleological Ethics of Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science)
He establishes a real, direct, uniform and (ordinarily) necessary connection between the event and its natural cause. As such, an act will be produced, in a real sense, by its human agent; and there will be a real and direct link between the internal state of the agent and his action. 128 129 130 Mab§Èith, 2, 507–8. Reading ‘måjid’ instead of ‘muwajjih’. Maã§lib, 3, 73. 44 chapter one Al-R§zÊ develops his theory of action under the influence of various sources—falsafÊ, Ash#arÊ and Mu#tazilÊ—but he puts forth a unique solution.
Al-R§zÊ’s second proof is as follows. Knowledge is either conception (taßawwur) or assertion (taßdÊq), the former being apprehension (idr§k) without judgement (Èukm), and the latter being, according to al-R§zÊ, apprehension with a judgement of fact. He first argues that conceptions are not acquired. For if I try to acquire a conception, I will either have awareness (shu#år) of the essence to be conceptualised, 80 81 82 This is discussed p. 118–20 infra. Jabr, 43–4. Jabr, 101–10; cf. Arba#Ên, 235–7; TafsÊr, 24, 179.
35 Maã§lib, 3, 9. 36 Maã§lib, 3, 13. 37 Maã§lib, 3, 14–6. 33 22 chapter one habit, social custom, and an agent’s expectation of praise or benefit in consequence to his acts. Also, each of these three types of cognitive states (knowledge, belief and presumption) includes motives that vary widely in strength; hence, the presumption that relies on a single informant’s account of an event generally constitutes a weaker motive than that which relies on multiple accounts, which, in turn, constitutes a weaker motive than witnessing the event oneself.