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Extra info for The Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding (Spe Monograph Series, Volume 3)
They are not available in standard tables. The approach has been to provide an adequate safety factor when designing sludge/biosolids pump and piping systems (7). Head requirements for elevation change and velocity are the same as for water. However, friction losses may be much higher than friction losses in water pipelines. Relatively simple procedures are often used in design work; such a procedure is described below. The accuracy of these procedures is often adequate, especially at solids contents below 3% by weight.
Pipeline is buried 3 to 6 ft (add 15% to cost for 6 to 10 ft), with no elevation change in the pipeline. 5. Pipeline is cement-lined cast or ductile iron, 4-inch minimum pipe size. 6. Pumps are dry-pit, horizontal or vertical, nonclog centrifugal (1780 rpm). 7. Construction cost does not include rock excavation or major unusual problems; add 70% to cost for rock. Transport and Pumping 27 8. Operation cost includes labor, supplies, and electrical power for pump stations, 12 h pumping/d, flow velocity of 4 ft/s.
Grinders require high maintenance; therefore, they should not be installed unless shown to be absolutely necessary. For locations where a grinder may be installed in the future, removable spool pieces should be inserted into the pipeline to facilitate the later installation of a grinder. Grinders may be applicable to streams carrying debris, rags, or stringy materials, but are usually not needed for streams carrying only secondary sludge. Grinders have often been installed preceding equipment with ball or flapper check valves.