By G. R. VanBlaricom, J. A. Estes (auth.), Professor Dr. Glenn R. VanBlaricom, Professor Dr. James A. Estes (eds.)
The impetus for this quantity comes from resources. the 1st is medical: by means of advantage of a choice for yes huge benthic invertebrates as meals, sea otters have attention-grabbing and important results at the constitution and dynamics of nearshore groups within the North Pacific. the second one is political: be reason behind the precarious prestige of the ocean otter inhabitants in coastal California, the U.S. Fish and flora and fauna provider (USFWS) introduced, in June 1984, a suggestion to set up a brand new inhabitants of sea otters at San Nicolas Island, off southern California. The inspiration is predicated at the premise that hazards of catastrophic losses of sea otters, as a result of huge oil spills, are tremendously lowered via allotting the inhabitants between geographically separate destinations. The federal legislation of the U.S. require that USFWS put up an Environmental impression assertion (ElS) concerning the proposed translocation of sea otters to San Nicolas Island. The EIS is meant to be an overview of most probably bio logical, social, and fiscal results of the idea. In ultimate shape, the EIS has a tremendous function within the determination of federal administration authority (in this example, the Secretary of the inner of the united states) to simply accept or reject the proposal.
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Extra resources for The Community Ecology of Sea Otters
Ricketts et al. 1985). The most important worm prey may be echiuroid worms. 1). In Monterey Harbor, where the density of clams is very low compared to 20 years ago, echiuroid worms are now a common prey (Marianne Reidman, Monterey Bay Aquarium Sea Otter Census; authors' pers. ). , in press). Echiuroid worms are probably less preferred than clams by sea otters, although there are exceptions. At Green Island, Prince William Sound, Alaksa, some territorial males specialized on in tertidal echiuroids (Echiurus echiurus), almost to the exclusion of all other prey (VanBlaricom, unpubl.
The deep-burrowing in fauna often live deeper than 20 em into the sediment and include long-siphoned clams, echiuroid worms, and polychaete worms. 1, see Fig. 1 for locations). However, there is no general geographic pattern related to prey-living depths in the diets of sea otters feeding in soft-bottom habitats. 1. Species of soft-sediment prey present in the diets of sea otters. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1982. Southern Sea Otter Recovery Plan) Prey category Food organism Epifaunal prey Crustacea Decapoda Blepharipoda occidentalis Cancer magister Cancer productus Chionecetes bairdi Chionecetes opillio Hyas coarctatus Lopholithodes form inatus Sclerocrangon boreas Telemessus cheiragonus Mollusca Bivalvia Modiolus difficilis Mytilus edulis Pecten beringia nus Pecten islandica Gastropoda Natica clausa Polin ices lewisi Echinodermata: Asteroidea Evasterias troschelii Echinoidea Dendraster sp.
Reference: (1) Calkins 1978. 1981. (3) Garshelis 1983. 3. The diet of sea otters in soft-sediment habitats from Prince William Sound, Alaska. 4. The diet of sea otters in soft-sediment habitats from California. Percent frequency of dives producing prey handled by feeding otters Prey type Echiuroida Mollusca Clam Pismo clam Tresus nuttallii Saxidomus nuttalli Tresus or Saxidomus Rock jingle Mussel Gastropod Moonsnail Arthopoda Crabs Spiny mole crab Cancer sp. 1 3 2 505 29 (2) (3) 211 (4) 77 (5) 203 (6) <1 yr >10 yrs 10 yrs <1 yr <1 yr (1) Duration of otter occupancy 1-2 yrs prior to sampling P = present.