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Additional resources for The Arctic Ocean: The Hydrographic Environment and the Fate of Pollutants

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Lt is seen that the f1uxes of latent and sensible heat playa minor role in the central Polar Ocean and in the east Siberian Sea which are ice covered for most of the year. This is certainly not true for the Norwegian - Barents Sea, a major portion of which stays open throughout the year, where large f1uxes of sensible and latent heat during the winter months are balanced by a major energy exchange with the underlying ocean. lce cover and growth affects far more than heat f10w from the ocean for it is the dominant factor in determining the surface albedo, that is the efficiency with which this surface reflects back incident radiation.

Their main living area was on the west coast, but they also travelled far north. Indeed, in eastern Peary Land, north of Independence Fjord, Eigil Knuth found a large umiak, dated by radiocarbon from the early fifteenth century, which shows that northern Greenland could then be circumnavigated. P. p. (from Müller-Beck-BandO. P. c-, ' ,,. ,, I ,.. ,. 1,,, ... I .... ' ... p. ). P. p. ). P. p. ). 20 Main human migrations during prehistorie and early historie times in the Ameriean Aretie and in Greenland.

Once more the northern ice-caps developed and the seas dropped nearly 200 metres below their present level. As a consequence, the Arctic Ocean became an inland frozen sea, whilst the land-bridge formed once again between Asia and Alaska. This was now an easy pathway for the Siberian arcto-mongoloid primitive hunters, who crossed over to North America and established themselves in Alaska, probably as a result of mere occasional migrations, guided by the spontaneous movement of the game, rather than as a planned expansion.

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