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By Bernard Manin

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Without regard to rotation), would on a given occasion elevate only some of them to office. In this respect there was a difference between lot and isegoria. Any citizen might address the Assembly and submit a proposal if he so wanted. Speech and initiative were thus equally shared among all who cared to have them, though not in the case of magistrates or judges, where only some people acceded to the offices they sought. What was distributed equally by lot was not power exactly, but the (mathematical) probability of achieving power.

Rousseau, On the Social Contract, Book II, ch. 6. 43 The principles of representative government Montesquieu, and Rousseau were thus in keeping with the republican tradition. Their thoughts on lot and election are today treated as mere curiosities. Modern commentators grant them little or no attention. However, nothing but an uncritical projection of our own viewpoint onto the past gives any reason to suppose that Harrington, Montesquieu, or Rousseau themselves regarded their thoughts on lot and election as being peripheral.

55. This is t r u e of Staveley, Greek and Roman Voting, b u t also of H a n s e n , The Democracy, p p . 84, 235-7. 32 Athenian Direct democracy and representation the courts in any analysis of how Athens utilized lot. In the courts, the use of lot to select judges and the complete absence of professionals were intended to guarantee that the voices of experts did not outweigh those of ordinary citizens. 58 Democracy consisted in placing decisive power in the hands of amateurs, the people the Athenians called hoi idiotai.

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