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By Andrew Ashworth, Lucia Zedner, Patrick Tomlin

Exploring the rules and values that are supposed to advisor and restrict the state's use of preventive strategies that contain coercion opposed to the person, this quantity arises from a three-year research of Preventive Justice. The contributions learn no matter if and whilst preventive measures are justified, no matter if inside or outwith the legal legislations, and whether or not they sign a bigger swap within the structure of safeguard.

Preventive measures comprise arguable crime keep watch over methods corresponding to pre-inchoate offences, pre-trial detention, restraining orders, and prevention detention of the harmful. There are solid purposes to justify nation use of coercion to guard the general public from damage, yet whereas the rationales and justifications for nation punishment were widely explored, the scope, limits, and ideas of preventive justice haven't got an identical realization. This quantity, written by way of global popular students from various disciplinary backgrounds and jurisdictions, redresses the stability, assessing the principles for the variety of coercive measures that states now soak up the identify of prevention and public defense.

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Thus: • simple nonconsummate offences—offences which do not include an ulterior intent requirement (an intent to do more than has actually been done)—the prime example would be offences of simple possession (this category is formed by the simple nonconsummate offences according to Husak’s definition minus such simple nonconsummate offences that include an ulterior intent requirement). • complex nonconsummate offences—offences which do include an ulterior intent requirement, ie an intent to do more than has actually been done (this category is formed by (1) the complex nonconsummate offences according to Husak’s definition plus (2) those simple nonconsummate offences that include an ulterior intent requirement).

I do not wish to enter into the general discussion on Feindstrafrecht in this context. de> 130 ff. 7 N Jareborg, ‘What Kind of Criminal Law Do We Want? On Defensive and Offensive Criminal Law Policy’ in A Snare (ed), Beware of Punishment: On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law (1995) 17–36. 8 EJ Husabo, ‘Pre-aktiv strafferet’ (2003) Tidskrift for strafferet 97–106. 26 Petter Asp What’s new? Has not criminal law always been conceptually linked to prevention? One initial objection to the picture just presented might be that the analysis focuses on a tendency which contains nothing new: criminal law has always been concerned with prevention.

One could express this by saying that increased distance between criminalized conduct and harm normally indicates decreased penal value which, in turn, means less weighty reasons for criminalization. This is a general problem, implying that, all other things being equal, the reasons for criminalizing nonconsummate offences are always less weighty than the reasons for criminalizing the corresponding consummate offence. In this context one should note, however, that many criminal law systems comprise proscriptions which are, so to speak, at the bottom level, for example proscriptions to which only modest fines are attached.

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