By F. Y. Cheng
Harm review, rehabilitation, decision-making, social effects, fix and reconstruction; those are all severe components for concerns following traditional mess ups corresponding to earthquakes. that allows you to deal with those concerns, the USA of the USA and the Peoples Republic of China usually set up bilateral symposia/workshops to enquire a number of probability mitigation, rather with admire to earthquake engineering. This booklet comprises state of the art stories awarded via world-renowned researchers on the US/PRC Sympsosium Workshop on Post-Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction held in Kunming, Yunnan, China, may well 1995. the subsequent key components are addressed: harm overview of constructions after earthquakes; classes of post-earthquake restoration, rehabilitation and reconstruction, together with public coverage, land use recommendations, city making plans, and layout; concerns in and examples of decision-making, and implementation of rehabilitation and reconstruction plans and rules; fix, strengthening, retrofit and keep watch over of buildings and lifeline structures, post-earthquake socio-economic difficulties protecting problems with aid and restoration; human and organizational habit in the course of emergency reaction, and techniques for development; real-time tracking of earthquake reaction and harm.
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Extra resources for Post-Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction
These cracks are perpendicular to lateral load. In other words, cracks have a 45 ~ angle to strong or weak axis. 01 mm in weak direction; this load is lower than that acting in strong axis. Figure 11 shows that under the same load, a column has smaller displacement in strong axis because the column has more stiffness in strong axis than weak axis in the region of the flare. 4000' 3500- Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis 3500 ~ S t r o n g D i r e c t i o n 3000 1 ~-. 3000- 2; ~" 2500O 20001500io00- 5000 0 i 50 1~176176 V 1 0 150 2 0 250 300 350 Lateral Displacement (mm) Fig.
Modified acceleration in longitudinal, transverse and vertical direction NFEA RESULTS OF COLUMN R4L Two cases of analysis are selected to describe the failure behavior of flared column R4L. One is a flared column subjected to lateral load in strong axis of cross-section with axial load. The other is subjected to lateral load at a 45 ~ angle to strong axis with axial load. Both cases represent loaded columns of the right bridge at bent 4 and bent 2 or 3, respectively. Cheng, EY. Y. 15 For a column with lateral load acting along strong axis, the increment of lateral displacement is proportional to the increment of load at the beginning of loading.
I r~: 9 . ) ........... HorizontalGround Motion 1'0 1'1 12 3-D Ground Motion Fig. 17 Comparisons on moment My and Mz CONCLUSIONS 1. A three-dimensional structure model is developed for analysis of the right bridge of Mission-Gothic Undercrossing. Computer results indicate that column failure led to collapse of the bridge's superstructure. Collapse behavior is similar to that observed in the field after the earthquake. 2. Nonlinear finite element method is employed to investigate failure behavior of the column subjected to lateral load with an angle to strong axis.