By Kathryn M. Rudy
"Medieval manuscripts resisted obsolescence. Made by means of hugely specialized craftspeople (scribes, illuminators, publication binders) with labour-intensive approaches utilizing particular and infrequently unique fabrics (parchment made up of dozens or thousands of skins, inks and paints made of prized minerals, animals and plants), books have been pricey and equipped to final. and so they outlived their vendors. instead of discard them after they have been outmoded, ebook vendors came across how you can replace, amend and upcycle books or ebook elements. those actions speeded up within the 15th century. such a lot manuscripts made ahead of 1390 have been bespoke and made for a specific buyer, yet these made after 1390 (especially books of hours) have been more and more made for an open marketplace, within which the manufacturer was once no longer in direct touch with the client. elevated potency ended in extra commonly used items, which vendors have been prompted to personalise. It additionally resulted in extra clean parchment within the ebook, for instance, the backs of inserted miniatures and the blanks ends of textual elements. booklet purchasers of the overdue fourteenth and in the course of the 15th century nonetheless held onto the outdated connotations of manuscripts—that they have been personalized luxurious items—even whilst the construction had turn into impersonal. vendors as a result bought books made for an open marketplace after which customized them, filling within the clean areas, or even including extra parts later. this may supply them an inexpensive product, yet one who nonetheless smacked of luxurious and met their person wishes. They stored older books in movement through amending them, connected goods to commonly used books to cause them to extra proper and priceless, and additional new prayers with escalating indulgences because the tradition of salvation shifted. Rudy considers ways that booklet vendors adjusted the contents in their books from the best (add a marginal be aware, stitch in a curtain) to the main complicated (take the e-book aside, decorate the parts with painted ornament, upload extra quires of parchment). by way of making occasionally severe changes, booklet proprietors saved their books stylish and emotionally proper. This examine explores the intersection of codicology and human hope. Rudy exhibits how elevated modularisation of e-book making ended in extra standardisation but additionally to extra possibilities for personalization. She asks: What houses did parchment manuscripts have that revealed books lacked? What are the interrelationships between expertise, potency, ability loss and standardisation?"--Publisher's website. Read more...
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Additional resources for Piety in pieces : how medieval readers customized their manuscripts
Second, techniques for making books of hours were adapted to the structure of this book type, which brought together discrete texts. When these were made in modular form, the fissures between sections generated blank parchment, which invited and even demanded additions. Third, prayer culture changed significantly in the fifteenth century, so that new prayers, especially those promising apotropaic benefits or indulgences, quickly became popular, and book owners wanted to incorporate these into their volumes to keep them up to date.
2, fol. 10r. uk/view/MS-II-00006–00002/25 32 Piety in Pieces page to begin a new prayer; therefore, additional prayers fill the top sections of many of the blank backs of other miniatures. Sometimes the locations of the additions are significant. One the back of the miniature of the personal angel (Cambridge, UL, Ms. 2; fig. 13)25 the owner has added a prayer in which words are interspersed with crosses, probably signaling that the reader should cross him- or herself at those points (fig. 26 Such prayers were understood to form a shield around their performer, who covered him- or herself with signs.
These prayers in this opening have been written by different hands, and different again from the hands on the previous folios. It would appear, then, that adding prayers to the blank areas in the book was a cumulative process, that the owner looked for space as his or her needs changed. 29 Opening in a book of hours, with blank space filled with prayers in an English hand. Cambridge, University Library, Ms. 2, fol. 15v-16r. lib. uk/view/ MS-II-00006–00002/37 30 Masters of the Pink Canopies, St.