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By A. J. Ayer (auth.)

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Truman are false. But, whatever may be the case with definite descriptions, it seems to me clear that we do not use proper names in such a way that failure to secure unique reference would render the statements which contained them false. As Mr. Strawson has argued, it is rather that we assume uniqueness of reference as a condition of treating such statements as candidates for truth or falsehood. I allow, therefore, that there are sentences of the English language, as it is ordinarily spoken, for which the language I have outlined would not be able to furnish logical equivalents.

But still, it will be argued, there is an important difference between them. Blueness is a ' true universal' : its instances have something positive in common, they share the common character of being blue. Eulbness, on the other hand, is not a true universal: its instances have nothing positive in common; an that unites them is that they fail to instantiate blueness. Even if we restrict the field to colour the same objection holds; for while an the instances of eulbness will then have it at least in common that they are an coloured, this will not suffice to make eulbness a true universal.

NEGATION Si Even SO, it will be said, there is a difference between blue and not-blue, which is not merely a difference of meaning or of specificity, and this difference is not removed by any such whimsical procedure as simply calling what is not blue 'euIb'. The use of 'not-bIue' presupposes the use of ' bIue' in a way that the use of 'blue' does not presuppose the use of 'not-blue'. , blue ' by pointing to instances of the property for which it stands: if the instances are numerous and varied he may come to understand what blueness is even though he has not yet learned the use of any negative signs.

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