By David J. Stensrud
Numerical climate prediction versions play an more and more vital position in meteorology, either briefly- and medium-range forecasting and international weather swap reports. crucial parts of any numerical climate prediction version are the subgrid-scale parameterization schemes, and the research and realizing of those schemes is a key point of numerical climate prediction. This ebook presents in-depth explorations of the main known varieties of parameterization schemes that impression either short-range climate forecasts and worldwide weather versions. numerous parameterizations are summarised and in comparison, through a dialogue in their barriers. evaluation questions on the finish of every bankruptcy let readers to watch their realizing of the subjects coated, and ideas can be found to teachers at www.cambridge.org/9780521865401. it will be an important reference for educational researchers, meteorologists, climate forecasters, and graduate scholars drawn to numerical climate prediction and its use in climate forecasting.
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Extra resources for Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical Weather Prediction Models
When one considers how cloud sizes are related to grid spacing in models, it is apparent that most models in use today need a parameterization for downwelling radiation that includes a representation of clouds. Since cumulus clouds, for instance, can be 500 m or less in width, it is likely that all models with a grid spacing greater than 200 m need some subgrid cloud cover scheme; otherwise these smallest and frequently observed clouds are not represented in the model. 4 Sensible heat flux Before getting into too many details about how to determine the sensible heat flux, it is wise to review the definition of flux.
1 Incoming solar radiation Incoming solar radiation is often calculated, in its simplest form, using " 2 d ð1 À aÞ cosðÞs ; Qs ¼ S d (2:1) where is the solar zenith angle, S is the solar irradiance (1365–1374 W mÀ2), d is the distance from the sun to the Earth, d" is the mean distance from the sun 24 Land surface–atmosphere parameterizations " 2 term to the Earth, a is the albedo, and s is the transmissivity. 5% from unity (Liou 1980). The zenith angle is determined from cosðÞ ¼ sinðjÞ sinðÞ þ cosðjÞ cosðÞ cosðhÞ; (2:2) where j is the latitude, is the solar declination angle, and h is the local hour of the sun.
2005). These differences can further feed back to the atmosphere and influence rainfall in more distant locations. 7 Ground heat flux (QG) Ground heat flux is the rate of heat transfer from the ground surface into the deeper soil levels. As with the other fluxes from the surface, it is influenced by surface temperature, soil type, soil moisture, and vegetation. Observations suggest that the upper 25 cm of soil has the largest diurnal changes in temperature, with temperature changes in the deeper soil levels occurring much more slowly.