By John Hendy
The Optimize series is designed to teach you ways to use your wisdom in review. those concise revision courses conceal the main mostly taught themes, and supply you with the instruments to:
Understand the legislations and be mindful the details
· utilizing diagrams and tables all through to illustrate how the legislations matches together
Contextualise your knowledge
· deciding upon and explaining how you can follow felony ideas for vital cases
· offering revision propose that will help you goal larger in essays and exams
Avoid universal misunderstandings and errors
· making a choice on universal pitfalls scholars come across in school and in assessment
Reflect seriously at the law
· deciding on contentious parts which are up for debate and on which you'll have to shape an opinion
Apply what you could have discovered in assessment
· offering studying goals that replicate commonplace overview criteria
· delivering pattern essay and examination questions, supported through end-of-chapter feedback
The sequence can be supported through entire on-line assets that let you track
your development in the course of the run-up to tests.
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Extra info for Optimize Criminal Law
The correct thing to say is ‘we will now consider WHETHER there has been an inter vening event’. Intervening events can take several forms: Naturally occurring events see Environment Agency v Empress Car Co.  2 AC 22 Acts of third parties see R v Jordan (1956) 40 Cr App R152 and R v Cheshire  1 WLR 844 Acts of the victi m see R v Roberts 56 Cr App R95 Act of God In cases where it is the sole or immediate cause of the prohibited consequence. You can use the following case to support this principle of law: Southern Water Authority v Pegrum (1989).
Example: Tony sells cigarettes to Laura, who is 14 years old (under the legal age to buy cigarettes). Strict liability would apply in the following way: 38 Optimize Criminal Law Tony sells cigarettes to Laura Laura is'4 years old and underage to buy cigarettes Tonycould be liable for selling the cigarettes to Laura The prosecution would only need to prove that he sold them to Laura- No mens rea would be required actus reus In another example, Zena is late for an appointment and speeds in her car along the motorway.
General Elements of Liability 41 In relation to part 2 you will need to consider: ❖ any historic blurring between the test for oblique intention and recklessness; ❖ where intention ends and recklessness begins; ❖ what is meant by the term recklessness: subjective and objective recklessness; ❖ whether intention should include foresight of a virtual certainty; ❖ the most serious criminal offences require proof of intention – however, there are still some very serious offences that can be committed where there is proof of recklessness – subjective reckless manslaughter, for example.