By Bruce Carter
The operational amplifier ("op amp") is the main flexible and commonplace form of analog IC, utilized in audio and voltage amplifiers, sign conditioners, sign converters, oscillators, and analog computing structures. virtually each digital equipment makes use of not less than one op amp. This e-book is Texas tools' entire professional-level instructional and connection with operational amplifier thought and functions. one of the subject matters lined are simple op amp physics (including experiences of present and voltage department, Thevenin's theorem, and transistor models), idealized op amp operation and configuration, suggestions idea and techniques, unmarried and twin offer operation, knowing op amp parameters, minimizing noise in op amp circuits, and functional functions reminiscent of instrumentation amplifiers, sign conditioning, oscillators, energetic filters, load and point conversions, and analog computing. there's additionally vast insurance of circuit building ideas, together with circuit board layout, grounding, enter and output isolation, utilizing decoupling capacitors, and frequency features of passive parts. the fabric during this ebook is acceptable to all op amp ICs from all brands, not only TI. in contrast to textbook remedies of op amp idea that have a tendency to target idealized op amp types and configuration, this identify makes use of idealized types in basic terms while essential to clarify op amp conception. the majority of this e-book is on real-world op amps and their functions; concerns comparable to thermal results, circuit noise, circuit buffering, choice of acceptable op amps for a given program, and unforeseen results in passive parts are all mentioned intimately.
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Extra info for Op Amps for Everyone: Design Reference
The circuit in Figure 10–15 has 4 resistors. Assuming that the capacitor is noiseless (not always a good assumption), that means four noise sources. For now, only the two resistors in the voltage divider that forms the voltage reference will be considered. The capacitor, however, has transformed the white noise from the resistors into pink (1/f) noise. 9 dB (10–24) So far, so good. The amplifier noise is swamping the resistor noise, which will only add a very slight pinkish component at low frequencies.
The direct gain for an inverting op amp is (a(ZF/(ZG + ZF))). The Miller effect causes the direct gain to fall off at high frequencies, thus error increases as frequency increases because the effective loop gain decreases. At a given frequency, the error also increases when the closed loop gain is increased. Gain in dB 20 LOG A Direct Gain 20 LOG (1 + Aβ) 20LOG(GCL) CLOSED LOOP GAIN LOG f Figure 9–3. VFA Gain versus Frequency 9-4 Bandwidth The CFA is a current operated device; hence, it not nearly as subject to the Miller effect resulting from stray capacitance as the VFA is.
For low source impedances and CMOS JFET inputs, only the noise voltage is important; the current sources are insignificant in the calculations because they are swamped in the input impedances. The equivalent circuit, therefore, reduces to that shown in Figure 10–8: _ _ Noiseless Op Amp + + en Figure 10–8. 4 Inverting Op Amp Circuit Noise If the previous circuit is operated in an inverting gain stage, the equivalent circuit becomes that shown in Figure 10–9: e2 Ein _ _ e1 R2 R1 Noiseless Op Amp + e3 R3 E0 + en Figure 10–9.