By Becker G. F.
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Additional info for On the Earth Considered as a Heat Engine
1912), an astronomer who made his career in private industry, Harold C. Urey (1893-1981), a chemist, and Eugene M. Shoemaker (1928-1997), a geologist. Ralph B. Baldwin Baldwin's interest in the Moon was sparked in 1941 by a series of telescopic lunar photographs he examined while waiting to give evening lectures at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago. No one had ever mentioned the Moon as an object of serious interest during his student years at the University of Michigan, where he earned his PhD in astronomy in 1937.
Furthermore, we may safely assume that the hall in Washington in which Gilbert delivered his presidential address was packed with a fair sampling of the nation's leading geologists from the nearby headquarters of the US Geological Survey. If he failed to strike a spark of interest it may have been because he was flouting two of the basic tenets of uniformitarianism, which dictated that all processes of change must originate within the Earth, and must be observed in operation. Craterforming impacts would originate outside the Earth, and such things never had been observed in operation.
Regolith samples are treasure troves of rock types projected to the sampling site by impacts from many sources on the Moon. The most common materials in the regolith are 'soil breccias', angular agglutinates of minute rock fragments welded together by impact glasses. Grains of individual rock types also occur in the regolith. Fortunately, most of the lunar rocks are so fine-grained that particles only 1 mm across often consist of two or more minerals, and particles 2-4 mm across are veritable boulders (Fig.