By Davies, Michael; Scott, P.J.B.
This ebook addresses the numerous adjustments within the perform and use of waters in oilfield purposes that experience happened because the ebook of Ostroff’s vintage, advent to Oilfield Water expertise. exchanging the older publication, this covers all features of water correct to oilfield actions, together with makes use of, remedy, corrosion and fabrics, microbiology, and environmental matters. Sections of the unique version which are nonetheless correct were retained and up-to-date, whereas completely new chapters hide significant advances in fabrics and therapy chemical compounds. ameliorations in perform in a number of elements of the area are featured.
record of Figures
record of Tables
desk of Contents
2. different types of Waters
three. Oil creation ideas
four. research of Water
five. Corrosion Mechanisms
6. Corrosion of Metals
7. Nonmetallic habit
eight. Corrosion in Waters
nine. Corrosion tracking
10. Corrosion regulate
eleven. Oilfield Water Microbiology
12. tracking for MIC
thirteen. organic keep watch over
14. Scales and Sludges Deposited from Water
15. Scale keep watch over
sixteen. Water platforms
17. Water remedy methods and kit
18. Waste Disposal, pollutants, and the surroundings
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Additional info for Oilfield Water Technology
It is possible that the constituent present in the largest amount is not responsible for the undesirable characteristicsof a scale, for a minor component may be responsible for binding the deposit together in the form of a scale. The initial examinationbegins with a visual inspection of the deposit. The sample is described in terms of color, size, hardness, magnetism, and odor. If the deposit appears to be a crystalline inorganic material, microscopic investigation may offer a clue to its identity.
These ions, however, are extremely important in scale deposition and are 44 Oilfield Water Technology therefore considered as major components. The carbonate ion is determined by titrating an aliquot of the water sample to the phenolphthalein end point with dilute sulfuric acid. For determination of the bicarbonate ion, methyl orange indicator is then added and the titration continued to the methyl orange end point. 5 DETERMINATION OF MINOR COMPONENTS Ions that are found occasionally in low concentrations in natural waters or plant waters are designated as minor components.
4 CO2 INJECTION EOR by COz injection often uses periodic injection of water after the gas in a process known as water-alternating gas (WAG). This process can produce an aggressive environment with wet COZand H2S requiring stainless steel or nickel alloys in selected locations. WAG is sometimes classed as secondary recovery. The gas used in inert gas injection can be made by passing exhaust 28 Oilfield Water Technology gas from compression engines over catalysts. 2% C02 over 15 years. 3% over the same period, and BHP increased by about 25%.