By Teh Fu Yen and George V. Chilingarian (Eds.)
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Extra info for Oil Shale
Both aerobic and anaerobic conditions might have coexisted. All deposits are microstratified and contain banded structures showing that the environmental conditions were not steady but varied on an annual, seasonal or irregular basis. Even algae themselves tended t o produce a stratified pattern. Parker [ 441 has described the formation of extensive algal mats in lagoons and mudflats as follows: “The living mat covers the mud bottom like a sheet of leather. Directly under the living mat is a layer of black mud, a t times, a few centimeters thick.
3-1. Modified Ralston diagram showing oil shales and possible precursors. studies, some success has been achieved using aqueous oxidation. Arising from early work on the chemistry of coal, Down and Himus  studied the action of alkaline potassium permanganate on a variety of oil shales. This research had the very important result that it clearly differentiated oil-shale kerogens into two types depending upon whether benzenoid acids were formed or not. A second major differentiation could be made based on extent of attack.
Kimmeridge oil shale was also completely attacked, but yielded much aromatic acid material. Further research has led to the belief that at least two types of kerogen are likely to be present in oil shale: (1)an algal portion which may or may not be oxidation resistant and (2) a quasi-aromatic portion, the nature of which is more humic or coaly. W. torbanite, which is almost of pure algal origin”, the black humic portion of the oil shale having been oxidized away “almost entirely”, yielding benzenoid acids.