By Shigeko Haruyama, Toshihiko Sugai
This booklet offers with the Tsunami intrusion within the decrease simple within the Tohoku area and position performed by means of the coastal and fluvial landforms within the damages. The land-use styles and the new urbanization has additionally been partially chargeable for a possibility point enhancement. The 2011 East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami has violently hit the coastal simple within the Tohoku and Kanto areas. The coastal geomorphology of those areas have performed a massive position within the affects of this usual catastrophe. The authors introduce tectonic settings, clarify and examine those various hazards, and talk about destiny catastrophe prevention and mitigation planning.
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Additional info for Natural Disaster and Coastal Geomorphology
The tsunami deposit was described every 50–100 m at 45 sites (b1-b45) shown in Fig. 7b. 1–3-cm-thick silt, respectively (Figs. 10). Generally, sand thickness thinned landward, and mud thickness gently became thicker landward. However, the sand and mud thickness fluctuated in associated with local topography. 1 km from the shoreline, tsunami deposit was not observed and erosion was dominant in sand beach. 2 km from the shoreline, the deposit was composed of 1–34-cm-thick, medium-grained sand layer.
5 m, were associated with tropical cyclones and low pressures. Coastal landforms can be roughly divided into four areas from north to south based on their characteristics. These areas are called conveniently as Kamikita Plain, Sanriku Coast, Sendai Plain, and Iwaki Coast (Fig. 1). Geomorphic studies about these coastal landforms were summarized by Koike et al. (2005). Marine terraces occur widely at the Kamikita Plain. The terraces are dissected by rivers flowing into the Paciﬁc Ocean and fluvial terraces formed by these rivers.
Thus, the processes of formation and the ages of these surfaces are unclear. 3 m along the entire Sanriku Coast (Fig. 3b; Ozawa et al. 2011). The source of the earthquake was in the Paciﬁc Ocean off the Sanriku Coast (Fig. 3a) at a focal depth of about 24 km (Japan Meteorological Agency 2011), and the resultant tsunami flooded most of the coastal plain (Haraguchi and Iwamatsu, 2011). The 22 Y. Niwa and T. Sugai Fig. 6 Example of tide-gauge data suggesting continuous subsidence during the past several decades at Ayukawa on the southern Sanriku Coast (Coastal Movements Data Center 2015).