By William Craig Brydwell
Because the variety of commercially to be had tools having atmospheric strain ionization (API) interfaces has elevated, curiosity in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for lipid research has blossomed. learn into novel strategies for LC/MS is a full of life resource of magazine article fabric, such a lot significantly concerning electrospray ionization and atmospheric strain chemical ionization for research of lipids. growing to be curiosity in sleek API recommendations for lipid research triggered booklet of this quantity. The precis of LC/MS during this publication will function a worthy reference and source for these attracted to stepping into the sphere of lipid research utilizing sleek instrumentation. smooth tools describes earlier paintings that helped demonstrated the root of the sphere, whereas additionally demonstrating new facts that's fast defining a brand new point of "state-of-the-art." defined herein are the equipment that might be utilized to lipids into the following decade and expectantly past.
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Additional resources for Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis-TEASER
Normal-phase LC separation of a phospholipid mixture offers the advantage of phospholipid class separation prior to MS determination of the individual species. The PC species are generally identified by their retention times in the chromatogram. CID of individual molecule-related ions of PC yields product ions that readily identify the species. Following CID, the [M – 15]– ions of PC yield three major series of fragments: (i) neutral losses of the sn-1 and sn-2 substituents as FA ([M – 15 – R1COOH]– and [M – 15 – R2COOH]); (ii) neutral losses of the sn-1 and sn-2 substituents as ketenes ([M – 15 – R1′CH=C=O]- and [M – 15 – R2′CH=C=O]–); and (iii) the sn-1 and sn-2 carboxylate anions (R1COO– and R2COO–) (78) (Fig.
In addition, the relative abundances of the two ions differ such that the ion arising from the loss of ethylenimine and the sn-1 FA was more abundant than the similar ion arising from the loss of ethylenimine and the sn-2 FA. This suggests that the relative abundances of these ions may indicate the positions of the FA substituents under the given conditions (88). In addition to the above-mentioned fragment ions from lithiated PE, the product-ion spectrum also exhibited ions arising from the combined losses of ethylenimine and the FA as ketenes and a relatively abundant ion at m / z 148, representing a lithiated ethanolaminephosphate (Fig.
As explained previously, the major pathway for the formation of the carboxylate anions is through a further fragmentation of [M – H – RxCOOH]– ions by a neutral loss of 136 amu. Since the abundances of these ions are such that [M – H – R2COOH]– > [M – H – R1COOH]–, further fragmentation of these ions yields more of the sn-1 carboxylate anion than the sn-2 carboxylate anion (93). The differential formation of the carboxylate anions would therefore permit accurate assignment of the regiospecificity of the FA substituents of PA molecules by tandem mass spectrometry.