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These case studies also allowed for the identification of state and local-level institutions and policies that influenced coping and adaptation strategies used by farmers. An alternative method of determining vulnerability was illustrated by Thornton et al. (2006), who used a workshop setting to determine 14 indicators of vulnerability to climate change in Africa, which they then reduced to four orthogonal factors by ‘principal components analysis’ (PCA) and used these four factors to construct an overall indicator of vulnerability.

To measure the former, they followed the method used in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Index (UNDP, 2005) to calculate normalized biophysical, social and technological indices. In this example, the various components of the Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence 56 Challenges and approaches to measuring the migration–environment nexus indices included the biophysical indicators of soil conditions (quality and depth) and groundwater availability; the socio-economic indicators of adult literacy rates and gender equity, to measure human and social capitals, respectively; and the percentage of district workforce employed in agriculture, and of landless labourers in the agricultural workforce, to measure the presence of alternative economic activities.

Recommendations for further policy-oriented research Though important steps have been taken in recent years to enhance the state of knowledge on the interactions between migration, the environment and climate change as highlighted by the main findings of this book in Section 3, wide-ranging knowledge gaps continue to exist. Below we suggest some priority areas for further research and policy analysis. (i) Shifting the research agenda and the framing of key issues Research on migration tends to focus primarily on the study of international migration, rather than internal migration, and most studies tend to be conducted by scholars in the North.

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