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Extra resources for Midlatitude ionospheric dynamics and disturbances

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Batista (2006), Magnetic storm associated disturbance dynamo effects in the low and equatorial latitude ionosphere, in Recurrent Magnetic Storms: Corotating Solar Wind Streams, Geophys. Monogr. , vol. 167, edited by B. , pp. 283–304, AGU Washington, D. C. Anderson, C. N. (1928), Correlation of long wave transatlantic radio transmission with other factors affected by solar activity, Proc. Inst. , 16, 297–347. Anderson, C. N. (1929), Notes on the effect of solar disturbances on transatlantic radio transmission, Proc.

A2, 315–324. Burns, A. , S. C. Solomon, W. Wang, and T. L. Killeen (2007), The ionospheric and thermospheric response to CMEs: Challenges and successes, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. , 69, 77–85. , and R. Meier (2008), Disturbed O/N2 ratios and their transport to middle and low latitudes, this volume. , and L. A. Gebhardt (1928), Measurements of the effective heights of the conducting layer and the disturbances of August 19, 1927, Proc. Inst. , 16, 290–296. Danilov, A. , and J. Lastovicka (2001), Effects of geomagnetic storms on the ionosphere and atmosphere, Int.

Accordingly, the field-aligned component of the frictional force will push the ionization up the inclined magnetic field lines. Obviously, this motion results in an uplifting of the F2 layer, as is observed. That an increase in layer height will lead to an increase in the ionization density (at least during daytime) is well understood and has to do with the reduced losses at higher altitudes. In the case of the electric field mechanism, the height in® ® crease is caused by an E ´ B drift. Since this drift is perpendicular to the inclined geomagnetic field, it also leads to an uplifting of the ionosphere.

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