By C. Donald Ahrens
The 1st textbook of its variety written particularly with the desires of the Canadian industry and its distinct meteorological surroundings in mind.
This first Canadian variation builds upon the attempted and validated strengths of the Ahrens Meteorology sequence and gives a extra appropriate source for Canadian scholars and teachers via making sure that Canadian content material, practices, conventions, and examples are used throughout.
An Earth platforms characteristic — the 1st of its style in Ahrens — has been constructed for this variation, proposing the interconnectedness of parts, and delivering a peek on the bankruptcy content material. This "visual desk of contents" highlights the Earth method parts mirrored in every one bankruptcy (the surroundings; hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, biosphere and anthrosphere). The relationships among the chapter's content material and Earth structures are extra extended upon within the advent of every chapter.
Unique Canadian content material during this first version includes:
• Canadian Air Mass/Front version and outlines of the Canadian forecast system
• North American climate and weather maps
• Canadian climate evidence, significant climate occasions, and files set in a world context
• particular themes comparable to How do climate broadcasters do it?, Why are Canada's coastal areas so foggy?, and Measuring snow intensity are lined in lots of new concentrate on ... packing containers with professional visitor writers equivalent to Claire Martin from CBC News
• Tephigrams used to evaluate balance are explained
• Inclusion of Canadian examples from coast to coast
• Marine influences/climates
• British Columbia's temperate rainforest
• Alberta's Chinook
• Prairies as a breeding floor for thunderstorms
• summer time warmth in southern Ontario and japanese Quebec
• behind schedule spring within the Maritimes as a result of thermal lag
• Hurricanes that experience impacted Canada
• Canadian practices and Canadian examples resembling Arctic observations, contemporary paintings on regional-scale climate forecasting, and climate and weather switch examine
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Additional resources for Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment
But the majority of atmospheric ozone (about 97 percent) is found in the upper atmosphere or stratosphere, where it forms naturally as oxygen atoms combine with oxygen molecules. 002 percent by volume. This small quantity is important, however, because it shields plants, animals, and humans from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. It is ironic that ozone, which damages plant life in a polluted environment, provides a natural protective shield in the upper atmosphere so that plants on the surface may survive.
Which is 90 times greater than that on Earth. On Earth , one would have to descend to a depth of about 900 m in the ocean to experience a similar pressure. Moreover, this thick atmosphere of C0 2 produces a strong greenhouse effect. with a scorching hot surface temperature of 480°C. The atmosphere of Mars, like that of Venus. is mostly carbon dioxide with small amounts of other gases. Unlike Venus, the Martian atmosphere is very thin and heat rapidly escapes from the surface. Surface temperatures on Mars are much lower, averaging around - 60°C.
See Focus on an Observation: The Radiosonde on p. 18 for more information about them. The reason for the inversion in the stratosphere is that ozone gas, which is concentrated in the upper atmosphere, plays a major role in heating the air at this altitude. Recall that ozone is important because of its protective capacity to absorb energetic ultraviolet solar energy. Some of this absorbed energy warms the stratosphere, which explains why there is an inversion. If ozone were not present, the air would probably continue to become colder with height, as it does in the troposphere.