By U. Förstner, W. Ahlf, W. Calmano, M. Kersten (auth.), J. A. C. Broekaert, Ş. Güçer, F. Adams (eds.)
Metal Speciation within the Environment is a multidiscipliary remedy of the prevalence, mobility and detection of steel compounds inside assorted environments in addition to their interplay with existence. unique emphasis is given to the complexation of metals, to the cutting-edge of hint analytical technique to be had for steel speciation (including atomic absorption spectrometry, plasma emission and mass spectrometry, neutron activation research, electrochemical tools, chemical sen- soring, a.o.), and environmental chemistry of parts similar to the actinides and heavy metals (e.g. chromium, arsenic, tin, and copper).
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Additional info for Metal Speciation in the Environment
Gii~r, and F. Adams CI Springer-Vedag Berlin Heidelberg 1990 44 frequently obtained by various experimental techniques (Buffle,1988). The size of the molecules depends on sample parameters such as concentration, pH and ionic strength. 1 gil). ,1981) also promote aggregation. ,1986). 1 gil, the aggregation is probably of minor importance. g. the reactions with metal ions, is faced with the difficult task of obtaining a sample which is representative of this class of compounds. There are various approaches to this problem.
For most elements, the acidity is more effective concerning the release than changes in redox potential. Remobilized element percentages in a typical sample were aproximately 20 to 40 % of total concentration for Zn, Co and Cd at pH 5. Temporal release patterns were also different for the individual elements. The experimental data clearly indicated the much reduced mobilisation of metals in the flow-by experiments (sample in a dialysis bag) compared to flow-through conditions. For cadmium, lead and zinc, maximum release during the flow-by experiment was less than 1 % of the flow-through experiment at the same chemical conditions.
By inserting dialysis bags or PVDF sheets containing typical substrates with varying metal concentrations into boreholes. Because these approaches neither involve reaction-mechanistic nor kinetic considerations, they are of limited value with regard to prediction of long-term effects in waste-deposits. This lack can be avoided by an experimental approach, originally been used by Patrick et al. (1973) and Herms and Brlimmer (1978). Metal mobility can be estimated by comparing sequential extraction results before and after treatment of waste material by controlled significant intensivation of relevant release parameters such as pH-value, redox-potential and temperature using an ion-exchanger system for extracting and analysing the released metals at a adequate frequence (Figure 6).