By Krishna P. Singh, Alan I. Soler
A tubular warmth exchanger exemplifies many facets of the problem in designing a strain vessel. excessive or very low working pressures and temperatures, mixed with sharp temperature gradients, and big changes within the stiffnesses of adjacent components, are among the legion of stipulations that behoove the eye of the warmth exchanger dressmaker. Pitfalls in mechanical layout could lead to numerous operational difficulties, comparable to tube-to-tubesheet joint failure, flanged joint leakage, weld cracks, tube buckling, and movement triggered vibration. inner disasters, corresponding to go partition bowing or weld rip-out, move partition gasket rib blow-out, and impingement actuated tube finish erosion are not any much less menacing. Designing to prevent such operational perils calls for a radical grounding in different disciplines of mechanics, and a large figuring out of the inter courting among the thermal and mechanical functionality of warmth exchangers. but, whereas there are various very good books on warmth ex changer thermal layout, similar attempt in mechanical layout has been non-existent. This obvious void has been stuffed through an collection of nationwide codes and criteria, particularly the "ASME Boiler and strain Vessel Code" and the "Standards of Tubular Exchanger brands organization. " those records, along with scattered guides, shape the motley compendia of the warmth exchanger designer's reference resource. the subject material sincerely beckons a methodical and finished therapy. This e-book is directed in the direction of assembly this need.
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Additional info for Mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers: And Pressure Vessel Components
Finally, although V-tube design eliminates the differential expansion problem between shell and tubes, the problem of differential expansion between two legs of the V-tube remains. 5]. Despite these shortcomings, the V-tube heat exchanger is the most popular style in use. In the power industry, V-tube design is almost exclusively used in feedwater heaters and in moisture separator reheaters. Steam generators in many pressurized water nuclear reactors are also of Vtube construction. In addition to the standard V-tube designs depicted above, many hybrids of fixed and V-tube designs have been devised for particular applications.
3 shows a distribution arrangement for a two-zone vertical feedwater heater with midshell steam entry. The distributor system consists of two perforated plates with a small separation. The perforations in the two plates are laid out to prevent a direct normal "line of sight". Some innovative designs have been developed to handle problems of impingement induced tube wastage. The Type "ES" (a tradename of Basco, Division of American Precision Industries) intercooler, which is used to cool compressed gases between compressor stages, is an example of such an innovative design.
The most significant of the operating conditions are those involving unit start up and shutdown. Rapid fluctuation in the temperatures of the entering fluids is another source of potential trouble. As will be discussed in Chapter 2, the stresses produced by temperature fluctuations are self-limiting in that failure from one thermal application is not to be expected. However, repeated cycling can cause the material to fail in fatigue. A notable exception to the above statement is the tube-totube sheet joint which, because of slenderness of the "leak path," may fail in even one application.