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Y. Koyanagi, and T. T. English (1984), Magma supply and storage at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, 1956–1983, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. , 21, 177–206. Edmond, J. , A. C. Campbell, M. R. Palmer, G. P. Klinkhammer, C. R. German, H. N. Edmonds, H. Elderfield, G. Thompson, and P. A. Rona (1995), Time series studies of vent fluids from the TAG and MARK sites (1986, 1990) Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A new solution chemistry model and a mechanism for Cu/Zn zonation in massive sulphide orebodies, in Hydrothermal Vents and Processes, Geol.

Figure 9 shows the circulation pattern and isotherms for when the two-phase region is developing. Figure 10 highlights the extent of the two-phase region in the lower left-hand corner of the system. Figure 11 shows the evolution of vent salinity and temperature over the 10-year simulation time. As the two-phase zone develops, saline brine settles in the lower left-hand corner of the system and vapor rises buoyantly in the discharge zone. 5 wt % NaCl. As the vapor rises to the seafloor, however, it mixes with seawater and vents as a single-phase fluid.

Basic geometry for a single-pass model simulation of two-phase flow in a ridge crest hydrothermal system. There is no salt flux through the side boundaries, which are also thermally insulated and impermeable. Mass and salt fluxes are also zero through the bottom boundary and a temperature distribution is imposed there. The top boundary is at constant pressure, and upstream weighting is used to determine values of temperature and salinity of fluid that crosses the boundary. two-phase region is allowed to develop for 3 years, and then the temperature is reduced from 420° to 390°C in the left hand corner so that a one-phase system returns.

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