By Thomas Lippert
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Additional resources for Laser Application of Polymers
In addition, parts of the polymer and low molecular weight fragments are removed during ablation. Thus a polymer network, with lower volume, remains with the appearance of the nap structures. The tree-like structures on the top of the nap are the result of a further polymer decomposition. There are two possibilities for this: a decomposition of the crosslinked polymer or a complete decomposition of the ablated fragments, which are redeposited. It was shown that, in the case of polyimide ablation, carbon clusters remained.
For the fluences below the threshold of ablation a different behavior after irradiation with the two wavelengths was found also. With 248-nm irradiation the absorption decreased continuously, as shown for 500 pulses in Fig. 10c. In the case of the 308-nm irradiation, first the absorption decreased to a similar curve as shown for 248-nm irradiation in Fig. 10c. After more than 250 pulses an overall increase of the absorption is detected (shown in Fig. 10b for 2000 pulses). An optical inspection of the sample revealed a loss of transparency and an opaque appearance.
With fluences above the threshold of ablation it is also possible to create microstructures . These features are found for films and fibers and are attributed to different mechanisms like Marangoni convection , surface scattered waves , recombination of microcracks , and a mixture of several mechanisms . It is also known that the irradiation of stretched polymers results in the creation of microstructures due to the release of the stress fields  upon laser irradiation and surface melting, which leads to a crystalline-to-amorphous transition of the polymers .