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Additional info for Landscape Ecology: A Top Down Approach (Landscape Ecology Series (Boca Raton, Fla.).)
During the middle Wisconsin the lake was 330 m deep and nearly 50,000 km2. Today, we know part of this region as the Bonneville salt flats. Lake Chad in northern Africa covered over 300,000 km2, but is now only 16,000 km2. S. had profound implications for plants and animals highly dependent on bodies of fresh water as well as the regional climate where the moderating effect of a large water body was lost. The Milankovitch Theory states that variations in three orbital parameters of the earth are responsible for changes in climate.
That is, while we might be able to generalize the Trophic–Dyanmic Theory to many ecosystems, we are unwilling (or unable) to induce a theory of landscape ecology from a single theory. Our plan here is to adopt a top-down approach to develop a theory of landscape ecology. To achieve our purpose we begin with a description of external © 2000 by CRC Press LLC processes operating on the earth itself. Certainly some of these forces are beyond human intervention. Plate tectonics, for instance, are acting continuously, but no less powerfully in time.
To design an environment with enhanced long-term survival potential, the prey must survive the exploitation by the predator. Environmental complexity must be such that the prey are able to colonize areas where they were previously extirpated by predators. In experiments where food resources were concentrated the predators drove the prey to extinction more often than not and then went extinct themselves. Simply increasing the area of odd resources did not remedy this situation. ” Such complexity provides more opportunities for prey refuge against overexploitation by the predator and also reduces the predator’s effective reproductive capacity by lowering their density.