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DIFFUSION OF LIGHT When light is reflected from a mirror, the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. When light is reflected from a piece of plain white paper; however, the reflected beam is scattered, or diffused, as shown in figure 2-6. Because the surface of the paper is not smooth, the reflected light is broken up into many light beams that are reflected in all directions. —Diffusion of light. Q12. When light strikes a piece of white paper, the light is reflected in all directions.

REFLECTION OF LIGHT Reflected waves are simply those waves that are neither transmitted nor absorbed, but are reflected from the surface of the medium they encounter. When a wave approaches a reflecting surface, such as a mirror, the wave that strikes the surface is called the incident wave, and the one that bounces back is called the reflected wave (refer to figure 2-4). An imaginary line perpendicular to the point at which the incident wave strikes the reflecting surface is called the normal, or the perpendicular.

Impurities in the fiber material cause the signal loss in optical fibers. By removing these impurities, construction of low-loss optical fibers was possible. The TWO BASIC TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBERS are multimode fibers and single mode fibers. A LOW-LOSS MULTIMODE OPTICAL FIBER was developed in 1970. A SMALL AREA LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED) was developed in 1971. This light source was suitable for low-loss coupling to optical fibers. FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM DESIGN has centered on long-haul communications and the subscriber-loop plant.

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