Download Introduction to Exploration Economics by R. E. Megill PDF

By R. E. Megill

Covers every little thing from minimal price of go back to machine courses for fiscal evaluate. encompasses a convenient word list and record of acronyms.

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Example text

The first valve in the run of the tree is the master valve. Its use is normally reserved for shutting in the well for repair of the upper master, swab, or wing valve. To repair a leaking lower master valve, the well must be killed by pumping in liquid or by plugging the tubing by wireline methods. Primary on-off control is with the wing valve. It is suggested that the surface safety valve be used as the upper master valve so that the well can be controlled even if the swab valve or wing valve is damaged.

8. 4. API Spec 14-D, Specification for Wellhead Surface Safety Valves for Offshore Service, was written with requirements for certification, documentation, and performance verification similar to those of 14-A. It also recognized that the most prevalent safety valves consist of valves and actuators that are often made by different manufacturers. There are separate requirements for the valve, actuator, and combined assembly. The performance testing requirements apply only to the sealing function of the valve, but they require that the valve be tested with an actuator.

They have at least two outlets because they are used for some type of separation. To maintain the levels within certain specified limits there are primary control valves on the outlets. The control valves are operated by floats which sense the fluid levels. In systems of less than about 150 to 200 psi, the floats may operate the valves by direct mechanical linkage. Above this pressure range, the float usually controls a gas pressure signal to the diaphragm of a control valve (Fig. 11). Control signal pressure normally ranges from 3 to 15 psi, full closed to full open.

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