By Christoph Meinel
This ebook is meant to function a accomplished and instructive consultant in the course of the new international of electronic communique. at the actual layer optical and electric cabling know-how are defined in addition to instant communique applied sciences. at the facts hyperlink layer neighborhood zone networks (LANs) are brought including the preferred LAN applied sciences reminiscent of Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, and ATM in addition to instant LAN applied sciences together with IEEE 802.x, Bluetooth, or ZigBee. a variety of WAN applied sciences are lined together with modern excessive velocity applied sciences like PDH and SDH as much as excessive velocity instant WANs (WiMAX) and 4th iteration instant phone networks LTE. Routing applied sciences finish the therapy of the knowledge hyperlink layer. subsequent, there's the net layer with the net protocol IP that establishes a digital uniform community out of the internet of heterogeneous networks. intimately, either types, IPv4 in addition to the successor IPv6 are coated intimately in addition to ICMP, NDP, and cellular IP. within the next shipping layer protocol capabilities are supplied to provide a connection-oriented and trustworthy shipping provider at the foundation of the easy and unreliable IP. the elemental protocols TCP and UDP are brought in addition to NAT, the community handle translation. Beside shipping layer safety protocols like SSL and TLS are awarded. at the upmost software layer well known web program protocols are defined like DNS, SMTP, PGP, (S)FTP, NFS, SSH, DHCP, SNMP, RTP, RTCP, RTSP, and worldwide Web.
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Extra info for Internetworking: Technological Foundations and Applications
A technique for bridging multiple different and possibly incompatible networks (LANs, WANs) into one Internet. To enable this, suitable switching computers (routers) are necessary, which mediate the path of a data packet through the network and ensure a secure delivery. The network appears as a homogeneous, virtual network (Internet) to the user. : Because many companies and organizations were involved in the development of the Internet it was necessary to create standardized protocols and interfaces to simplify the development effort.
Here, different methods of flow control are carried out to ensure an even network utilization. Individual connections between the transmitter and receiver can be pooled together in the layers above or below or separated again as the case may be. This multiplexing (or demultiplexing) must proceed in a transparent way at every layer. If multiplexing takes place in a lower layer then the layer above it should not be influenced. If multiple alternative connection paths exist between the transmitter and the receiver in a network then routing decisions must be made.
Each layer addresses a sub-problem of the network communication, with the addition of a new abstraction level of communication. The top layer provides the interface for application programs wishing to exchange information with applications on other computers. On the basis of such a layer model, the protocol designer constructs a complete protocol family, the so-called protocol stack, in which the individual protocol solves exactly the tasks addressed on each layer. Principally, in such a layer model the transmission of information from the application program of one computer to the application program of another computer follows a specific organization.