By Josef C. Brada, Wojciech Bienkowski, Masaaki Kuboniwa
Greater schooling is more and more very important to the exertions marketplace luck of people and the prosperity of countries, but, as this e-book exhibits, public investment for better schooling is declining. It provides leading edge techniques to expanding investment for universities via nearer ties with enterprise and during privatization of universities.
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Additional info for International Perspectives on Financing Higher Education
Because external funds can be used at the discretion of the universities, university administrations have introduced internal incentive systems in order to compete for external financing. As a matter of fact, external financing of this type is concentrated among the most important and high-ranking universities. Competitive external financing from the Ministry of Education consists of two types: support for research activities and support for educational activities. Generally speaking, universities with strong and competitive research activities have better chances to attract such research and educational support.
Private universities play a major role in the bachelor-level education, especially in the field of human and social sciences, but national universities play a bigger role in postgraduate education, especially in the fields of natural science. 3, the reform process of the Japanese higher educational system since the 1990s and the status quo of universities in Japan are summarized. Although the deregulation movement of the 1980s and 1990s and the deteriorating Japanese fiscal position led to university reforms, the Ministry of Education has not lost its ability 25 26 Satoshi Mizobata and Masahiko Yoshii to guide universities in Japan toward the Ministry’s educational targets.
The so-called 6–3–3–4 educational system has survived without major changes for almost 70 years. As to the higher educational system, two major changes took place. First, the educational model was rather simplified, and the academic years of universities were prolonged from three to four years. Second, the number of universities increased dramatically because many higher educational institutes that had not been promoted to university status under the old regime were able to change their status to universities, and new, especially private, universities were established like so many mushrooms after a rain.