By Cook A.H.
Planets have excited the minds of guy considering prehistory. In our personal time planetary technology has develop into a speedily constructing zone of astronomical learn, because the tools carried through spacecraft have tremendously elevated our wisdom of planetary surfaces and interiors. the rocky planets of the internal sun procedure undergo numerous craters, scars in their encounters with innumerable meteorites, even though the energetic floor of the earth has contrived to erase those positive aspects from our personal planet. The outer giants, quite Jupiter, have energetic atmospheres, whereas Io, a satellite tv for pc of Jupiter, has sulphur volcanoes. during this publication Alan cook dinner explains how the mechanical homes of the planets are made up our minds, how planetary fabrics behave at excessive strain, and the way celestial mechanics and the quantum physics of hugely condensed topic could be mixed to figure out the final structure of the planets.
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Such dialogue would ensure that the lessons learnt in one country can be transferred to others, and would help to avoid stakeholders’ perceptions of differences between programmes from raising concerns. Working Group 3 – Practical approaches and tools for the management of uncertainty Introduction The objective of the working group was to exchange experiences regarding the management of uncertainties in various national programmes, taking into account different regulatory frameworks. The discussion focused on the practical aspects of a safety case, and how different tools could or should be used when accounting for uncertainties.
A principal reason for such differences is the applicable regulations and the cultural context for these regulations. This is decisive in determining whether probability distributions are presented explicitly, but regardless of how regulations are written, the regulators always allow the waste management organisations to select the most appropriate means for presenting and communicating the safety case to both decision makers and laymen. 30 The group identified several other points for consideration in a risk analysis but did not reach a consensus as to their treatment: • • • • • A fully deterministic safety case is not possible but does the quantification of probabilities increase transparency?
G. standards for Yucca Mountain require a probabilistic calculation of dose. Sweden has a risk criterion, but guidance does not yet prescribe any calculational approach. The Group concluded that the difference is strongly linked to the extent to which the regulator expects aggregation (probabilistic) vs. non-aggregation (deterministic) of consequence and likelihood. It is clear that there are differences in the extent to which regulations prescribe the approach to be followed in assessments. Examples of this include regulations in the US that prescribe transport pathways, discharge area, characteristics of the RMEI etc.