By Charles Cornet, Yoan Léger, Cédric Robert
Integrated Lasers on Silicon offers a complete evaluate of the state of the art use of lasers on silicon for photonic integration. The authors reveal the necessity for effective laser resources on silicon, inspired via the improvement of on-board/on-chip optical interconnects and the various integration schemes to be had. The authors contain distinct descriptions of crew IV-based lasers, via a presentation of the consequences received in the course of the bonding technique (hybrid III-V lasers). The monolithic integration of III-V semiconductor lasers are explored, concluding with a dialogue of the various sorts of hollow space geometries benchmarked with appreciate to their strength integration on silicon in an commercial environment.
- Features a transparent description of the benefits, drawbacks, and demanding situations of laser integration on silicon
- Serves as a staple reference within the common box of silicon photonics
- Focuses at the promising advancements of hybrid and monolithic III-V lasers on silicon, formerly unreviewed
- Discusses the various forms of hollow space geometries benchmarked with recognize to their capability integration on silicon in an commercial environment
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Additional resources for Integrated Lasers on Silicon
3% tensile strain [ISH 03, LIU 04a, HAR 04]. , nitrides) were also proposed [LIU 04b, FAN 07, TAK 08, KUR 11, KER 11, CAP 14]. MEMS have also been proposed to externally control the strain state of the Ge up to 1% of biaxial tensile strain with an increasing of the photoluminescence by a factor of 260 [JAI 12]. More recently, Süess et al. 1% uniaxial tensile strain, with a suspended microbridge [SÜE 13]. 7% Group IV Silicon Lasers 43 uniaxial tensile strain was reported in recent studies, thus opening the way for true direct bandgap emission [SUK 14].
3 III–V Lasers Bonded on Si In this chapter, we present the different III–V laser device groups that are heterogeneously integrated on silicon through the bonding techniques. If they benefit from the state-of-the-art performances of group III–V laser devices, they also face technological issues, as well as integration constraints. 1. Introduction The various strategies presented in Chapter 2 to develop a laser using silicon-based group IV materials were mainly motivated by their straightforward CMOS compatibility as proved by the role they played in the development of mature building blocks for silicon photonics (modulators, photodiodes).
In the case of hydrophilic surfaces, there is necessarily an oxide layer at the interface, which can be an issue when one requires driving a current through the junction. In the case of hydrophobic surfaces, the interface is oxide-free and driving electrical current has been demonstrated [TAN 12]. Nevertheless, because the bonding is not assisted by the thin water layer, it is more sensitive to the surfaces roughness and microdefects [PAS 02]. Thus, it is generally more difficult to bond full wafers with hydrophobic surfaces and this is generally employed only for die bonding [TAL 13].