By Rino Micheloni
Solid country Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in firm and buyer purposes, changing hard disk drive Drives (HDDs) by means of supplying greater functionality and decrease strength. within the firm, builders of knowledge middle server and garage platforms have visible CPU functionality becoming exponentially for the prior twenty years, whereas HDD functionality has more suitable linearly for a similar interval. also, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have elevated randomness of garage I/Os. those traits have shifted functionality bottlenecks to firm garage platforms. enterprise severe purposes corresponding to on-line transaction processing, monetary information processing and database mining are more and more restricted through garage functionality.
In patron purposes, small cellular structures are leaving little room for batteries whereas hard lengthy existence out of them. for that reason, lowering either idle and lively strength intake has develop into serious. also, patron garage platforms are short of major functionality development in addition to assisting small powerful shape elements. eventually, shopper structures are optimizing for top performance/power ratio in addition to performance/cost ratio.
SSDs promise to handle either company and consumer garage standards through greatly bettering functionality whereas whilst lowering power.
Inside strong nation Drives walks the reader via all of the major subject matters relating to SSDs: from NAND Flash to reminiscence controller (hardware and software), from I/O interfaces (PCIe/SAS/SATA) to reliability, from errors correction codes (BCH and LDPC) to encryption, from Flash sign processing to hybrid garage. we are hoping you take pleasure in this journey inside of strong nation Drives.
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Extra info for Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)
The number of pages per WL is related to the storage capabilities of the memory cell. Depending on the number of storage levels, Flash memories are referred to in different ways: • • • • SLC memories stores 1 bit per cell; MLC memories stores 2 bits per cell; 8LC memories stores 3 bits per cell; 16LC memories stores 4 bits per cell. MC0 SSL1 WL1<31:0> DSL1 SSL S S S MSSL S D D Source Line (SL) DSL2 S S WL2<31:0> SSL2 Fig. 3 NAND String (a) and NAND array (b) Fig. 4 NAND array section along the bitline direction BLOCK 1 WL<0> S SL BLOCK 2 MC30 SSL0 D NAND String MC31 WL<30> WL0<31:0> D NAND String MBSL WL<31> BSL0 NAND String BSL BLo NAND String D BLe NAND String b Bitline (BL) NAND String a 23 BLOCK 0 2 SSD Architecture and PCI Express Interface 24 K.
Nishioka, H. Motoda, A flash-memory based file system, in Proceedings of the USENIX Winter Technical Conference, 1995, pp. 155–164 J. M. Kim, S. L. Min, Y. Cho, A space-efficient flash translation layer for compactflash systems. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 48(2), 366–375 (May 2002) 2 SSD Architecture and PCI Express Interface 45 9. -W. -J. -S. -H. -W. -J. Songe, FAST: A log-buffer based FTL scheme with fully associative sector translation, in 2005 US-Korea Conference on Science, Technology, & Entrepreneurship, Seoul, Aug 2005 10.
In the storage-attached configuration, a SSD resides between each storage cluster and the host and acts to improve retrieval time of data stored in the storage array. Server-attached SSDs are dedicated to the server whereas SSDs are shared in the network-attached configuration. The SSD in the server-attached configuration generally stores a smaller amount of index files than in the storage-attached configuration and is less expensive to implement. Currently, there is a debate between server vendors and storage vendors as to the merits of attaching the SSD on the server side or storage side.