By Bruce L. McCartney
''Inland navigation: Locks, Dams,and Channels (ASCE Manuals and stories on Engineering perform No. 94)'' was once ready by means of a job committee of the Waterways committee, that is a part of the Waterways, Ports, Coastal, and Ocean department. The guide presents details on making plans, layout, development, and operation of the U.S. waterways utilized by barge site visitors. many of the details comes from layout standards and greater than a hundred years of expertise of the united states military Corps of Engineers. The Corps has outfitted greater than 220 lock and dam initiatives on US waterways and continues greater than 25,000 miles of inland navigation channels. This guide additionally comprises a listing of the Corps lock and Dam tasks and six case histories
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Extra info for Inland navigation : locks, dams, and channels
Most shallow-draft waterways utilize most or part of an existing stream that consists of alternate bends and straight reaches or crossings between bends. Even canals have bends as required to take advantage of existing lakes or low areas and/or bypassing existing structures or highly developed areas. Because of the characteristics of the equipment using the waterways, the channel dimensions required will vary depending on the alignment of the channel. 2 Channel Dimensions Section 5 of the Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act approved 4 March 1915 (PL 291,1915), outlines the basis for channel dimensions as follows.
4 Groundwater Table. Permanently establishing navigation pools at elevations near the top of riverbanks may cause significant changes to the water table levels on adjacent lands. Saturated soils can adversely affect or destroy the productivity of farmlands. Established land drainage facilities can lose their efficiency by reduction of the hydraulic heads between the fields or ditches and the river. A special study of watertable changes resulting from proposed navigation pools may be necessary. Such a study was conducted by the USGS along reaches of the Arkansas River.
At sites with limited water supplies, special seals may be proposed on spillway gates or other dam features to minimize water leakage. 2 Normal flows. Moderate or commonly recurring flood flows are needed to establish the elevation of various project features such as access roads, lock walls, operating decks, and the like, and also project-related relocations and real estate requirements. Typical discharges used to determine the elevations include: the 2% duration flow, the 2-, 10-, 50-, and 100-year interval flood flows, and the standard project flood (SPF).