By James V Stone

Initially constructed through Claude Shannon within the Forties, details conception laid the rules for the electronic revolution, and is now a vital instrument in telecommunications, genetics, linguistics, mind sciences, and deep house communique. during this richly illustrated booklet, available examples are used to introduce details thought by way of daily video games like ‘20 questions’ ahead of extra complex themes are explored. on-line MatLab and Python computing device courses offer hands-on event of data conception in motion, and PowerPoint slides supply help for educating. Written in an off-the-cuff kind, with a complete word list and educational appendices, this article is a perfect primer for newbies who desire to examine the fundamental rules and functions of data thought.

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**Additional info for Information Theory: A Tutorial Introduction**

**Example text**

Can be represented with about four binary digits on a computer’ s hard drive. Thus, even though each pixel can adopt any one of 256 possible greylevels, and is displayed using eight binary digits of computer memory, the grey-level of each pixel can be stored in about four binary digits. 6a contains an average of only four bits of information, and therefore each binary digit contains only half a bit of information. At first sight, this seems like an odd result. 5 that a binary digit can represent half a bit, and we shall see later (especially in Chapter 5) that a fraction of a bit is a well-defined quantity which has a reasonably intuitive interpretation.

G. as in an English sentence) then they do not provide independent information. 58. If a source generates values chosen from an underlying distribution which remains constant over time then the source is said to be stationary. Unless stated otherwise, all sources in this text are assumed to be stationary. 8. Bits, Shannons, and Bans The maximum amount of information associated with a discrete variable is the logarithm of the number m of equally probable values it can adopt. Thus, because a binary variable can adopt m = 2 states, it conveys up to n = 1 bit of information.

P{ym)}- (2-25) Each output sequence y is interpreted as implying the presence of a particular input sequence x. g. due to channel noise) then the result is an error. For a given channel, the mapping between messages and outputs, and vice versa, is provided by a code. A code consists of a message, an encoder, and a decoder. The decoder converts each output y to a (possibly incorrect) message. Channel noise induces errors in interpreting outputs; the error rate of a code is the number of incorrect inputs associated with that codebook divided by the number of possible inputs.