Download In Situ Bioremediation: When Does It Work? by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and PDF

By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, Committee on In Situ Bioremediation

In situ bioremediation-the use of microorganisms for on-site elimination of contaminants-is in all probability more cost-effective, speedier, and more secure than traditional cleanup tools. yet in situ bioremediation can be clouded in uncertainty, controversy, and distrust. This quantity from the nationwide learn Council offers path for decisionmakers and provides unique and readable reasons of: the procedures considering in situ bioremediation, situations within which it's best used, and strategies of dimension, box trying out, and modeling to guage the result of bioremediation tasks. Bioremediation specialists representing educational study, box perform, law, and supply available info and case examples; they discover how in situ bioremediation works, the way it has constructed on account that its first advertisement use in 1972, and what examine and schooling efforts are urged for the longer term. the amount incorporates a sequence of viewpoint papers. The publication may be instantly precious to policymakers, regulators, bioremediation practitioners and dealers, environmental teams, involved voters, school, and scholars.

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Extra info for In Situ Bioremediation: When Does It Work?

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Html PRINCIPLES OF BIOREMEDIATION 23 useful for containing hazardous materials. There are three basic ways microbes can be used to demobilize contaminants: • Microbial biomes can sorb hydrophobic organic molecules. Sufficient biomass grown in the path of contaminant migration could stop or slow contaminant movement. This concept is sometimes called a biocurtain. • Microorganisms can produce reduced or oxidized species that cause metals to precipitate. Examples are oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+, which precipitates as ferric hydroxide (FeOH3(s)); reduction of SO42- to sulfide (S2-), which precipitates with Fe2+ as pyrite (FeS(s)) or with mercury (Hg2+) as mercuric sulfide (HgS(s)); reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) to trivalent chromium (Cr3+), which can precipitate as chromium oxides, sulfides, or phosphates; and, as mentioned previously, reduction of soluble uranium to insoluble U4+, which precipitates as uraninite (UO2).

Often (but not always), oxidation results in the addition of an oxygen atom and/or the loss of a hydrogen atom. Reduce: The transfer of electrons to a compound, such as oxygen, that occurs when another compound is oxidized. Electron acceptor: The compound that receives electrons (and therefore is reduced) in the energy-producing oxidation-reduction reactions that are essential for the growth of microorganisms and bioremediation. Common electron acceptors in bioremediation are oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, and iron.

In Situ Bioremediation: When Does it Work? html PRINCIPLES OF BIOREMEDIATION 23 useful for containing hazardous materials. There are three basic ways microbes can be used to demobilize contaminants: • Microbial biomes can sorb hydrophobic organic molecules. Sufficient biomass grown in the path of contaminant migration could stop or slow contaminant movement. This concept is sometimes called a biocurtain. • Microorganisms can produce reduced or oxidized species that cause metals to precipitate. Examples are oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+, which precipitates as ferric hydroxide (FeOH3(s)); reduction of SO42- to sulfide (S2-), which precipitates with Fe2+ as pyrite (FeS(s)) or with mercury (Hg2+) as mercuric sulfide (HgS(s)); reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) to trivalent chromium (Cr3+), which can precipitate as chromium oxides, sulfides, or phosphates; and, as mentioned previously, reduction of soluble uranium to insoluble U4+, which precipitates as uraninite (UO2).

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