By Anshel J. Schiff
Contemporary average and robust California earthquakes show that components of electrical energy platforms are very at risk of harm. so much harm is because of the failure of porcelain components in high-voltage substation apparatus, even supposing, functionality can be strongly prompted by way of particular gear designs and deploy practices. harm to varied lifelines and buildings has impaired the functionality of a few verbal exchange and regulate structures after earthquakes. This handbook concerns how to enhance the earthquake reaction of electrical strength structures. It bargains with significant strength process parts - energy producing stations, transmission and distribution traces, substations, approach communications and keep an eye on, and ancillary amenities and services. a wide part of the rfile is dedicated to high-voltage substations, as this can be the place such a lot energy approach harm has been focused. the subjects comprise: resources and results of earthquakes; evaluate of earthquake functionality of strength platforms and amenities; method of enhanced earthquake functionality; substations; transmission and distribution traces and aid constructions; energy producing amenities; approach regulate; conversation structures; and ancillary amenities and features
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Extra resources for Guide to improved earthquake performance of electric power systems
Each of the following sections will discuss one of the major effects of earthquakes: ground vibration, soil liquefaction, soil-structure interaction, earthquake-induced landslides, subsidence, ground faulting, and earthquake-induced water waves. There is an emphasis on those effects that are most important to power systems. 1 Ground Vibration When an earthquake occurs, seismic energy radiates away from the fault rupture in the form of ground vibrations that induce vibration in the structures and equipment resting on the ground.
34 EARTHQUAKE PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS New York; 1886, Charleston, South Carolina; 1940, New Hampshire; and 1944, Massena, New York. Table 2-5 lists the number of events originating in each state with a given peak MMI. Like the Central region, the East is expected to be more severely impacted than the West because of the greater potential for soil liquefaction and lower attenuation of seismic energy. 1 Charleston, South Carolina. 0 was centered 40 km northwest of Charleston. Recent earthquakes have had depths of 3 to 13 km, suggesting that the 1886 event also occurred in the upper crust.
In general, the severity of the ground shaking decreases as the distance from the source increases. However, local soil conditions can significantly change the character of the ground motion. As the depth of soft soil increases at a site, the low-frequency component of the ground motion is amplified, the high-frequency component tends to be attenuated, and the duration of strong shaking is increased. Ground vibration levels may be amplified by a factor of three or more because of site conditions.