By National Research Council Natl Research Council
Addresses the failure of the implementation of the applied sciences designed to achieve groundwater remediation because of genuine or preceived dangers of capability failure in a advertisement context.
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Extra info for Groundwater & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants
All rights reserved. html 29 INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-4 Chemicals Present as DNAPLs in Contaminated Groundwater and Soil at DOE Installations Source of Information Rank INEEL, 1997a Groundwater 1 Trichloroethylene (TCE) 2 Dichloroethylene (DCE) 3 Perchloroethylene (PCE) 4 Vinyl chloride 5 Trichloroethane (TCA) 6 Chloroform 7 Dichloroethane 8 Carbon tetrachloride DOE, 1992b 1,1,1-TCA 1,2-DCE PCE 1,1-DCA Chloroform 1,1-DCE Carbon tetrachloride 1,2-Dichloromethane Soil 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TCE Polychlorinated biphenyls DCE PCE TCE 1,1,1-TCA PCE Dichloromethane Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Freon 1,2-DCA 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Chlorobenzene a This data set is not inclusive across the weapons complex but includes the major waste units identified at about 60 sites in 1995 and 1996.
NRC. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. : National Academy Press. Probst, K. , and M. H. McGovern. 1998. Long-Term Stewardship and the Nuclear Weapons Complex: The Challenge Ahead. : Resources for the Future. Riley, R. , and J. M. Zachara. 1992. Chemical Contaminants on DOE Lands and Selection of Contaminant Mixtures for Subsurface Science Research. DOE/ER-0547T. : Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research. Sandia National Laboratories. 1996.
Geologic and geochemical characteristics of the site also have a major influence on the performance of subsurface cleanup systems. The subsurface is usually highly heterogeneous, consisting of layers of materials such as sand, gravel, clay, and rock (NRC, 1994). These materials have vastly different abilities to transmit water and other fluids and influence subsurface water chemistry in different ways. Even within a single layer, composition may vary over small distances. Characterizing this variability is extremely difficult because the subsurface cannot be viewed in its entirety (NRC, 1994); hydrogeologic and geochemical properties generally are estimated from samples withdrawn from wells and coring devices placed at discrete intervals.