Download Global Biogeochemical Cycles by Samuel S. Butcher PDF

By Samuel S. Butcher

Describes the transformation/movement of chemicals in a world context and is designed for classes facing a few points of biogeochemical cycles. prepared in 3 sections, it covers earth sciences, aspect cycles and a synthesis of latest environmental concerns.

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The Earth's oceans and its atmosphere are unique in comparison with Mars and Venus. Neither of these planets have oceans and their atmospheres are composed largely of CO 2 (Table 2-2). Mars has ice on and in its surface materials, but Venus has essentially no water anywhere. With a surface temperature of 650 K, water near the surface of Venus could only exist in the gas state. It has been suggested that Venus may have had as much water as the Earth but lost it in a catastrophic blow-off process driven by extreme greenhouse heating early in its history (see Chapter 10 for a discussion of loss by escape from the upper atmosphere).

Beyond Fe The Origin and Early Evolution of the Earth the binding energy per nucleon decreases and exothermic reactions do not occur. Up to Fe many of the nuclei are products of alpha reactions, which involve fusion with a He nucleus. e. ; see Fig. 2-1). During the red giant phase of stellar evolution, free neutrons are generated by reactions such as 13C(a,n) 16 0 and 22Ne(a,n) 25 Mg. The (a,n) notation signifies a nuclear reaction where an alpha particle combines with the first nucleus and a neutron is ejected to form the second nucleus.

The solar nebula that formed is believed to have been a stable rotating disk somewhat larger than the present planetary system. The Sun formed in the center and the planets formed from materials that accumulated in the disk. The planets Jupiter and Saturn must have formed by some variant The Origin and Early Evolution of the Earth of gravitational collapse, because to a good approximation their elemental composition matches that of the bulk nebula. Most of their mass is H and He, elements that could only have been in gaseous form.

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