Download Glacial Geology: Ice Sheets and Landforms by Matthew M. Bennett, Neil F. Glasser PDF

By Matthew M. Bennett, Neil F. Glasser

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6 ASTER satellite image of Glaciers Colonia and Arenales on the eastern side of the North Patagonian Icefield. Note the increase in surface debris cover down-glacier as a result of surface ablation. [Image courtesy of: Krister Jansson] 1. In both cases the glaciers are fed by large amounts of precipitation that falls as snow at higher elevations from southwesterly weather systems, with very strong precipitation gradients between the west (maritime) and the east (continental). 2. 2), with extremely high rates of snow accumulation and high ablation rates.

In comparison with alpine regions therefore, proximal glaciofluvial processes are relatively unimportant in these high-altitude environments. Meltwater is largely confined to single channels because of the steepness of the channel gradient and narrowness of the valleys. 5. 3). Peak GLOF discharges have been calculated as up to 60 times greater than seasonal high flow floods derived from snowmelt runoff, glacier meltwater and monsoonal precipitation. 3: GLACIER HAZARDS IN THE HIMALAYA AND THE ANDES As glaciers in mountain areas recede in response to climatic warming, a number of different glacier hazards can develop.

Siegert (2000) reviews evidence for Antarctic subglacial lakes, and Fricker et al. (2007) describe subglacial lake connections. Bennett (2003) provides a review of ice stream behaviour, and Ng and Conway (2004) provide a good example of recent ice stream stagnation. Oppenheimer (1998) reviews some of the uncertainties in assessing the future behaviour of the ice sheet. Scambos et al. (2000) identify the links between climate warming and the break-up of ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula. Pritchard and Vaughan (2007) describe the effects of iceshelf removal on glacier velocities.

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