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By Richard Foster Flint

GLACIAL GEOLOGY and the Pleistocene Epoch via Richard Foster Flint Professor of Geology in yuletide collage big apple JOHN WILEY SONS, Inc. London CHAPMAN corridor, restricted To the reminiscence of MAX DEMOREST 1910-1942 awesome glaciologist, very good box significant other, beneficiant and considerate buddy, who died to save lots of the lives of others. November 30, 1942 PREFACE The Pleistocene epoch occupies a especially vital position within the time scale of geology, for it embraces the occasions of the most recent million or extra years within the background of the Earth and is consequently so fresh that it bridges the space among the geologic adjustments now in growth and the extra distant earlier. whilst the paintings of the geologist is done, wrote Gilbert, 1 and his ultimate entire document written, the longest and most vital bankruptcy can be upon the most recent and shortest of the geo common sense sessions. The bankruptcy can be longest as the extraordinary complete ness of the checklist of the newest interval will allow him to set forth such a lot thoroughly its advanced historical past. The alterations of every interval its erosion, its sedimentation, and its metamorphism obliterate a part of the files of its predecessor and of all past sessions, in order that the order of our wisdom needs to stay, because it now could be, the inverse order in their antiquity. This truth in itself furnishes an sufficient cause of making the prin cipal evidence of the Pleistocene epoch compactly on hand, not just to geologists but in addition to Geologists, archeologists, geographers, and . others whose reviews succeed in again into the prehistoric realm. moreover, the elevated speed of analysis upon Pleistocene difficulties quite often, and difficulties in glacial geology particularly, that has been obvious over the past 20 years has emphasised the need, during this box, of a precis that might be immediately a connection with the knowledge already tested and a way of indicating the parts and difficulties during which extra examine is so much wanted. those are the relevant targets of the current quantity. not anyone is familiar with higher than its writer that it falls in need of reach ing them. wisdom of the Pleistocene has grown to such an volume whole reference paintings might develop into an encyclopedia. the resultant necessity for condensation has required the workout of selective judgment at each flip. The checklist of references on the finish of the publication is much from whole, notwithstanding an earnest attempt has been made to work out that it truly is consultant. particularly it will probably lack very important titles that experience seemed in a few nations throughout the warfare years and that experience now not but been commonly disbursed. 1 Gilbert 1890, p. 1. viii PREFACE This dialogue treats the Pleistocene frankly from the viewpoint of glaciation, the exceptional attribute that distinguishes the Pleisto cene from the epochs that preceded it. The slightly bulky identify was once chosen with this truth in brain, in an attempt to not create the influence that the paintings is an absolutely balanced remedy of each part of the Pleistocene. As is mentioned in bankruptcy sixteen, the correlations of Pleistocene occasions mentioned and advised are, so far as attainable, these in keeping with geologic proof instead of on archeologic facts. within the presentation of geologic facts itself stream-terrace information are used as low as attainable within the trust that this classification of information is extra often topic to defective interpretation than the knowledge received from positive aspects of alternative types. specifically this e-book avoids, in correlation, deduction from any thought of Pleistocene climatic fluctuation which units up a set chronology of occasions. This conservative perspective is followed at the precept that in basic terms while the stratigraphic column is equipped up strictly on geologic facts can the effect of prejudice in desire of a selected thought of weather be avoided...

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On the other hand, as nearly all mountains and other highlands are marked by deep valleys and intervening ridges oriented in various directions, the regional snowline in them can never be determined persists to described. 21 exactly; it can be fixed only approximately, within hardly few hundred at all. It sheltered feet. 3 Thus in less than a most regions this "line'* is really not a line at that) in which snow zone irregular a zone (and a very from both wind and sun may be is at much lower altitudes than or to rapid ablation.

Convergence toward the center will produce an obstructing effect, with oblique-upward movement of ice. Rise of the surface of the ice sheet and this will continue until the surface of the more becomes nearly horizontal throughout its entire will result, re-establishing equilibrium. Regardless of how accumulation is distributed over an ice sheet once extent, thus ice sheet, move- ments tending toward the establishment of equilibrium will take place cited. according to the principles implied in the two ideal examples just maximum with Probably no actual ice sheet has ever been nourished accumulation either at the center or around the entire margin.

GENERAL NATURE OF GLACIER MOTION mass of Two 15 loose, granular neve, easily takes place within a single season. sublimation and a melting-refreezing of water vapor escape, chiefly from molecules process. By sublimation, the edges of snowflakes, and attach themselves to the central parts of other snowflakes in such a way as to maintain the hexagonal crystalare processes involved: line structure originally possessed by the flakes. Sublimation thus converts flakes into crystalline granules, each usually a fraction of a millimeter in diameter.

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