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By Charles C. Bates

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Additional info for Geophysics in the Affairs of Man. A Personalized History of Exploration Geophysics and Its Allied Sciences of Seismology and Oceanography

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P. Herdman and George Deacon. The latter became the Director of the National Institute of Oceanography at Wormley, Surrey, when it was founded during 1949. S. S. S. S. S. Weather Bureau (marine climatology and marine weather pheno­ mena). ® is a registered trademark of the Raytheon Company. 30 · In practice, sound velocity in water can vary about two percent depending upon salinity and temperature. 40 Geophysics in the Affairs of Man values by having the arm transmit a spark to special recording paper at the times of signal transmission and signal reception.

In this effort, they also obtained extensive assistance from Dr. W. B. Harland of the University's Department of Geology. Bullard was equally anxious to check other methods of geophysical surveying and soon had Ben Browne at sea in Royal Navy submarines to measure gravity with Vening Meinesz type pendulums. Bullard also started making heat-flow measurements in Africa and Great Britain and, in 1939, even carefully evaluated a well-known water-diviner. As "Teddy" remarked, "If it works, it will be the cheapest method of prospecting known!

2 Comparative Values of Geophysical Survey Methods for Locating Subsurface Structural Uplift as of 1939 Useful in rapid reconnaissance Suitable for detail work prior to drilling well Magnetometer Gravity meter Torsion balance X X X X Electrical prospecting (Eltran method) Chemical soil analysis (Subterrex method) X X Refraction seismograph Reflection seismograph X X Method X X Remarks Largely replaced by gravity meter after 1934 Results clouded by biogenic and manintroduced hydro­ carbons Very expensive Far superior to the other methods, particularly in lessening or cor­ recting for asymmetry in deep-seated anomalies* Source: Billings (1940).

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