By William Poundstone
At least 5 U.S. presidential elections were received by means of the second one most well-liked candidate. the explanation used to be a "spoiler"--a minor candidate who takes adequate votes clear of the preferred candidate to tip the election to another person. The spoiler influence is greater than a glitch. it's a final result of 1 of the main marvelous highbrow discoveries of the 20 th century: the "impossibility theorem" of Nobel laureate economist Kenneth Arrow. The impossibility theorem asserts that vote casting is essentially unfair--a discovering that has now not been misplaced on modern political specialists. Armed with polls, concentration teams, and smear campaigns, political strategists are exploiting the mathematical faults of the easy majority vote. In contemporary election cycles, this has ended in such not likely strategies as Republicans investment poll drives for eco-friendly spoilers and Democrats procuring right-wing applicants' radio advertisements. Gaming the Vote shows that there's a method to the spoiler challenge that would fulfill either correct and left. A system
called variety vote casting, already regular on the web, is the fairest balloting approach to all, based on desktop stories. regardless of those findings, diversity vote casting continues to be arguable, and Gaming the Vote assesses the stumbling blocks confronting any try and switch the yank electoral approach. the most recent of numerous books via William Poundstone at the subject of ways very important medical rules have affected the genuine international, Gaming the Vote is a wry exposé of the way the political method particularly works, and a choice to action.
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Additional info for Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (and What We Can Do About It)
The new appointee, Robert Harvey, was an attor- 18 Prologue: The Wizard and the Lizard ney whose qualifications included writing a five-thousand-dollar check to the Edwards campaign. Under Roemer, the levee board had forced the Army Corps of Engineers to agree to build higher levees. Under the new administration, inspections were lax. Edwards had other priorities, such as bringing casino gambling to New Orleans. A new gambling bill passed the legislature. Robert Harvey lured Bally's into opening a riverboat casino at a dock owned by the levee board.
Unanimity is actuaHy the least demanding condition we can ask for. This keeps Arrow's result as far-reaching as possible. A third condition is a no-brainer: mmdictatorship. Suppose that whenever there's a big decision to be made, every citizen goes to the polls and marks a ballot. It's all a pretense. Only one vote counts, and that's Joe Stalin's. This is a dictatorship (even if everyone does go through the motions of voting). The nondictatorship condition says, 49 GAMING THE VOTE reasonably enough, that there must not be a dictator-voter who always gets his way, no matter how everyone else votes.
Arrow absorbed economics quickly. He completed all the required doctoral courses by 1942 and came to the slightly terrifying realization that he had no idea what to do for his dissertation. He thus began a long career as "professional student" (ein Student, Oskar Morgenstern might have said). For a while he drifted from job to job. Then the war intervened, and he worked in weather prediction for the army. This convinced him that the physical sciences were not necessarily more accurate than the social sciences.