By Michel Grabisch

With the imaginative and prescient that machines will be rendered smarter, now we have witnessed for greater than a decade large engineering efforts to enforce clever sys tems. those makes an attempt contain emulating human reasoning, and researchers have attempted to version such reasoning from a variety of issues of view. yet we all know worthwhile little approximately human reasoning strategies, studying mechanisms and so on, and specifically approximately reasoning with constrained, vague wisdom. In a feeling, clever platforms are machines which use the main basic kind of human wisdom including human reasoning power to arrive judgements. hence the overall challenge of reasoning with wisdom is the middle of layout technique. The try and use human wisdom in its so much normal feel, that's, via linguistic descriptions, is novel and arguable. the newness lies within the popularity of a brand new kind of un walk in the park, particularly fuzziness in ordinary language, and the controversality lies within the mathematical modeling technique. As R. Bellman [7] as soon as acknowledged, choice making below uncertainty is among the attributes of human intelligence. while uncertainty is known because the impossi bility to foretell occurrences of occasions, the context is everyday to statisticians. As such, efforts to exploit likelihood concept as a vital instrument for construction clever platforms were pursued (Pearl [203], Neapolitan [182)). The method turns out o.k. if the doubtful wisdom in a given challenge will be modeled as likelihood measures.

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**Sample text**

This duality is interesting its own right. The main source for writing this chapter is the work of J. Kampe de Feriet in the 1960's, starting with Kampe de Feriet and Forte [121], and continuing with other work such as Kampe de Feriet and Benvenuti [118], Kampe de Feriet and Nguyen [125], [126], Langrand [147], Langrand and Nguyen [148], Nguyen [184], and Coquet [27]. 1 Various Aspects of Information The general meaning of the term information is quite familiar to everyone, and in today's information-based society, is a concept of ever greater importance.

Then there exists a unique probability measure Q on the Borel a-field of F such that for each K E K, T(K) = Q(FK) if and only ifT is a Choquet capacity, alternating of infinite order with T(0) = and T ::; 1. ° °: ; e. A similar result is given by Matheron. Let :1 be the set of all subsets of a set Let T : :1 -7 [0,1] with T(0) = 0. Define 8: :1 x J -7 [0,1] by 8(0, J) = 1 - T(J) 8(I U {O}, J) = 8(I, J) - 8(I, J U {O}). T is called aspace law if 8 :::: 0. 5 (Matheron) If T is aspace law, then there exists a unique probability measure Q on a(M) such that for all 1 E :1, T(I) = Q{A : An 1 -# 0}.

5 Classification of Capacities Let (n, A, P) be a prob ability space. Since P is increasing on the have for all X, A, BE A that (7- field A, we = P(XA) + P(XB) - P(XAB), P(X) ~ P(XA U XB) where XY denotes X n Y. Thus P(X) - P(XA) - P(XB) + P(XAB) ~ O. If we write V'I(X;A I ) V'2(X;AI, A 2 ) = P(X) - P(XA I ), = V'I(X;A I ) - V'I(XA 2 ;A I ), and in general, V' n-I(X; Al, A 2 ,···, An-I) - V' n-l (XAn; Al, A 2 , ... , An-I), then we have V' n formula ~ 0 for aIl n ~ 1. This foIlows from the weIl known Poincare 0#J<;;;{1,2, ...