By Andrew Ashworth, Martin Wasik
The Oxford Monographs on felony legislation and Justice sequence covers all features of felony legislation and method together with legal facts. The scope of the sequence is extensive, encompassing either functional and theoretical works. This quantity is a thematic choice of essays on sentencing concept through top writers. The essays examine numerous matters affecting the self-discipline together with the underlying justifications for the imposition of punishment by means of the kingdom, parts of sentencing coverage that experience given upward thrust to specific hassle, reminiscent of the sentencing of drug offenders, the reason for discounting sentences for a number of offenders, the life of detailed sentencing for younger offenders, and situations the place the harm performed to the sufferer is of a distinct significance from what could have been anticipated, and contains a number of questions about the unequal influence on offenders of other sentencing measures.This quantity is devoted to Professor Andrew von Hirsch, whose carrying on with paintings on sentencing thought supplied the stimulus for the gathering.
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Additional resources for Fundamentals of Sentencing Theory: Essays in Honour of Andrew von Hirsch (Oxford Monographs on Criminal Law and Justice)
6 Theorizing Social Movement Strategic Adaptation 29 at the particular stage of the campaign and often without full information (Alinsky 1971). Actions more likely to be successful or those more likely to move activists incrementally toward their goal are those that shift the balance of power between activists and their targets in favor of the activists, at least to some degree. As power theorists (Wrong 1979 ) and some social movement theorists (Jasper 2006; Turner 1970) reveal, power is generally exercised in one of three ways in interactions between movement groups and the authorities they challenge.
To reveal the mechanisms, we need to look more closely at what collective actors do to pursue their goals and the context in which they take these steps. Some researchers consider whether movement groups that build up sizeable memberships or that mobilize large numbers of participants for protest events are more likely to achieve their goals (Gilbert and Howe 1991; Jenkins and Brents 1989; Johnson 2008). Such studies focus explicitly on the scale of mobilization. Lohmann (1993), in one attempt to pinpoint a mechanism linking movement mobilization and political outcomes, argues that political leaders are willing to alter policy once a “critical threshold” in the number of moderate activists participating in protest is reached.
Scholars typically draw these conclusions from investigations of business organizations, but Minkoff (1999) makes a similar claim for social movement groups. My argument, however, runs contrary to these claims. I argue that tactically flexible social movement groups are more likely to succeed by winning political reforms. The seeming difference between my findings and those from the organizational ecology perspective can in all likelihood be explained by the fact that gaining political reforms (my outcome) is quite different than organizational dissolution (the organizational ecology outcome).