By Jóhanna Kristín Birnir
This booklet asks what distinguishes peaceable plural democracies from violent ones and what distinguishes violent ethnic teams from peaceable ones in the similar democracy. opposite to traditional knowledge, it means that ethnic teams and their political calls for aren't inherently intransigent and that violence isn't an important corollary of ethnic politics. The booklet posits that ethnic id serves as a good yet versatile details shortcut for political offerings, influencing celebration formation and improvement in new and maturing democracies. It in addition argues that political intransigence and violence expressed via a few ethnic teams stem from conditions exogenous to ethnic affiliations. specifically, absolute regulations on ethnic entry to the administrative produce stipulations lower than which ethnic workforce incentive to take part in peaceable electoral politics is eradicated. a few case reports and statistical research of all electoral democracies when you consider that 1945 are used to check and aid the formal argument.
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Additional info for Ethnicity and Electoral Politics
As a result, ethnic groups overcome their collective action problems and engage in political protest and even violence. Olzak also argues that in the short term, conﬂict is not the only possible outcome. In systems with highly skewed power relations, accommodation may occur through subjugation and repression of the less powerful group. Nevertheless, she also speculates that such asymmetric power balances may not be stable in the long run. Lichbach, in turn, argues that under conditions of deprivation rebels have to overcome not only the context-dependent collective action problems internal to the group but also the state’s attempts to thwart rebellion.
Thus the question remains, What explains change in ethnic electoral politics? The answer put forth here is that the object of ethnic socialization is misspeciﬁed in the machine politics literature. I argue that rather than fostering loyalty to a particular party, ethnic socialization fosters individual loyalty to the ethnic group. If socialized attitudes cultivate loyalty to the group rather than a party, we should expect members of the group 20 21 Derived from psychology (Hyman, 1959), political socialization demonstrates how political orientation is learned.
Perhaps consequently, a recent “action plan” of the PQ then premier Landry focused on jobs, health care, and poverty, with minimal reference to the “national question” (“Quebec’s troubled separatist government,” 2002). Ethnic Group Identity 21 ethnic group identity Theories of ethnic identity have moved away from an understanding of ethnicity as primordial (Rabushka and Shepsle, 1972; Geertz, 1973) to one of ethnicity as a more or less constructed category (Horowitz, 1985; Olzak, 1992; Laitin, 1998; Chandra 2004; Posner, 2005) that is highly inﬂuenced by contextual factors and political strategies adopted by the group leaders.