By C. Donald Ahrens

This up to date and more suitable 7th variation of necessities OF METEOROLOGY is written via the main generally learn and authoritative writer in introductory meteorology-Donald Ahrens. Ahrens's skill to provide an explanation for fairly advanced rules in a student-friendly, workable type permits even non-science scholars to imagine the rules of meteorology. The text's transparent and alluring narrative is supplemented by way of quite a few pedagogical beneficial properties that inspire gazing, calculating, and synthesizing details. New serious considering questions associated with key figures and inspiration animation packing containers element to on-line animations and appendices permitting scholars to right away observe the textual content fabric to the area round them--and comprehend the underlying meteorological ideas.

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Sample text

Numbers represent approximations based on surface observations and satellite data. While the actual value of each process may vary by several percent, it is the relative size of the numbers that is important. And so, the earth and the atmosphere absorb energy from the sun, as well as from each other. In all of the energy exchanges, a delicate balance is maintained. Essentially, there is no yearly gain or loss of total energy, and the average temperature of the earth and the atmosphere remains fairly constant from one year to the next.

Since the concentration of water vapor decreases rapidly above the earth, most of the absorption occurs in a layer near the surface. Hence, the lower atmosphere is mainly heated from below. 39 If convection were to suddenly stop, so that warm surface air was unable to rise, estimates are that the average air temperature at the earth’s surface would increase by about 10°C (18°F). * SCATTERED AND REFLECTED LIGHT When solar radiation enters the atmosphere, a number of interactions take place. For example, some of the energy is absorbed by gases, such as ozone, in the upper atmosphere.

Sunlight travels through the surrounding air with little effect upon the air itself. Your face, however, absorbs this energy and converts it to thermal energy. Thus, sunlight warms your face without actually warming the air. The energy transferred from the sun to your face is called radiant energy or radiation. It travels in the form of waves that release energy when they are absorbed by an object. Because these waves have magnetic and electrical properties, we call them electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves do not need molecules to propagate them.

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